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Table 4-6M. Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Petajoules)

Table 4-6M. Energy Consumption by Mode of Transportation (Petajoules)

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  1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Air                             
Certificated carriersa                             
Jet fuel 278 554 1,119 1,077 R1,213 1,442 R1,770 R1,639 R1,675 R1,703 R1,777 1,825 1,878 1,946 1,976
General aviationb                             
Aviation gasoline 31 37 70 52 66 53 45 45 40 34 33 R37 R37 37 39
Jet fuel N 8 30 65 109 98 94 82 70 65 66 R80 R87 R92 116
Highway                             
Gasoline, diesel and other fuels                             
Passenger car and motorcycle 5,430 6,558 8,952 9,793 R9,257 9,456 9,200 8,507 8,655 8,869 8,979 R9,004 9,155 R9,245 9,551
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle N d 1,624 R2,517 3,138 3,609 R4,697 5,040 5,398 5,652 5,818 R6,015 6,245 R6,513 6,671
Single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck N 2,027 581 793 1,013 1,083 1,223 1,196 1,205 1,242 1,322 1,349 1,377 1,401 1,425
Combination truck N 974 1,075 1,343 1,908 R2,050 2,361 2,460 2,519 2,597 2,730 2,894 2,955 R2,971 3,088
Bus 121 128 120 154 149 122 131 126 128 136 141 142 R145 150 153
Transitc                             
Electricity 10 9 9 10 9 15 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 P19
Motor fuel                              
Diesel 30 36 40 53 63 89 95 97 100 99 99 100 101 R104 P102
Gasoline and other nondiesel fuelse 25 16 9 1 1 6 4 4 5 6 8 8 8 8 R6
Compressed natural gas N N N N N N N N <1 <1 1 R1 2 3 R4
Rail, Class I (in freight service)                             
Distillate/diesel fuel 507 526 519 535 571 455 456 425 440 452 488 509 524 523 524
Amtrak                             
Electricity N N N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Distillate/diesel fuel N N N 9 9 10 12 12 12 12 11 10 10 11 11
Water                             
Residual fuel oil 624 489 596 641 1,414 725 999 1,070 1,037 834 851 930 900 791 888
Distillate/diesel fuel oil 115 95 120 161 216 249 302 299 325 315 320 342 365 377 380
Gasoline N N 79 96 139 139 171 226 174 115 118 140 131 130 126
Pipeline                             
Natural gas 378 544 786 634 690 548 718 654 639 679 746 762 774 818 691

a Domestic operations only.
b Includes fuel used in air taxi operations, but not commuter operations.
c Prior to 1984, excludes commuter rail, automated guideway, ferryboat, demand responsive vehicles, and most  rural and smaller systems.
d Included in other single-unit 2-axle 6-tire or more truck category.  
e Gasoline and all other nondiesel fuels such as liquified natural gas, methanol, and propane, except compressed natural gas.  

KEY: kWh = kilowatt-hour; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised.

NOTES: The following conversion rates were used: Jet fuel = 37,626,700 joules/ litersCompressed natural gas = 38,657,950 joules/ liters
Aviation gasoline = 33,501,698 joules/ litersResidual fuel = 41,723,829 joules/ liters
Automotive gasoline = 34,839,537 joules/ litersResidual fuel = 41,723,829 joules/ liters
Diesel motor fuel = 38,657,950 joules/ litersNatural gas = 38,413,974 joules/ m3
Electricity 1kWh = 3,600,000 joules, negating electrical system loses. To include electrical system loses, multiply this conversion factor by approximately 3.

SOURCES: 
Air: 
Certificated air carriers: 
1960-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html,  as of July 5, 2000. 
General aviation: 
1960-80: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Aviation Policy, Plans, and Management Analysis, FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (Washington, DC: Annual issues). 
1985-97: Ibid., General Aviation and Avionics Survey (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table 5.1 and similar tables in earlier editions. 
1998: Ibid. FAA Aerospace Forecasts Fiscal Years 2000-2011 (Washington, DC: March 2000), table 29. 
Highway: 
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics, Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.  
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1. 
Transit: 
Electricity/motor fuel/compressed natural gas: 
1960-98: American Public Transit Association, Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: February 1999), tables 65, 66, 67, and similar tables in earlier editions.  
Rail: 
1960-98: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: May 1999), p. 40. 
Amtrak: 
1975-98: Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communication. 
Water: 
Residual and distillate/diesel fuel oil: 
1960-80: American Petroleum Institute, Basic Petroleum Data Book (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 10, 10a, 12, and 12a. 
1985-98: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales (Washington, DC: Annual issues), tables 2 and 4,   and similar tables in earlier editions.  
Gasoline: 
1970-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table MF-24  and similar tables in earlier editions. 
Pipeline: 
1960-96: U.S. Department of Energy, Natural Gas Annual 1997 (Washington, DC: October 1998), table 101. 
1997-98: Ibid., table 1. 

Updated: Saturday, May 20, 2017