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Appendix C: Literature Review

Appendix C: Literature Review

1 Introduction

This literature review of road safety in Africa has been organised by the main
road safety sectors. South Africa's references were provided by TRL's local
counterpart, the Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South
Africa and they are included at the end of each section. This avoided the risk
of the road safety work in South Africa overwhelming the rest of the region's
efforts.

1.1 Sources

The first source for the literature review was the IRRD database which contains
references from over 30 institutes and organisations from 25 countries and includes
references in English, German, Spanish and French. IRRD is reported to receive
approximately 10,000 references each year and is updated on a monthly basis.
The literature review was limited to those references published in the past
decade and it was decided not to include the 1989 Second African Road Safety
Conference. A few key older reports were included, such as UNECA's 1989 Road
Safety manual on Low Cost Engineering Countermeasures which remains a practical
reference.

Articles were also identified from Conference Proceedings, including that of
the 1997 Third African Road Safety Congress, TRL project files and from the
personal libraries of colleagues.

2 Road Safety Management

One of the World Bank's Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program's Working
Papers, Assum's Road Safety in Africa: Appraisal of Road Safety Initiatives
in Five African Countries reviewed the institutional framework as well as the
activities undertaken in each country. All five countries (Benin, Cote d'Ivoire,
Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe had national road safety coordinating bodies and
while the roles and names may have differed, they shared the same main problems
including funding and technical skill shortages which hindered implementation.
The national road safety programmes were also summarised and the short and long
term effects assessed (Assum, 1998).

The conditions for sustainable road safety work were described as: competence,
political priority, funding, implementation, organisation, monitoring and evaluation,
and time with political priority seen as the primary requirement which can facilitate
the delivery of the other requirements.

This Working Paper concluded with a call for an African Road Safety Initiative,
previously discussed at the Third African Road Safety Congress. Building on
the success of the Road Maintenance Initiative which led to the introduction
of road funds and private sector participation in road maintenance and rehabilitation
programmes, an African Road Safety Initiative was recommended to use the same
guiding principles: ownership, financing, responsibility, and management (Assum,
1998).

Examples of national approaches to road safety management, including several
National Road Safety Councils, are summarised below.

2.1 National Road Safety Councils

Ghana

A National Road Safety Committee was established in 1974 under the Ministry
of Transport and Communications. It was handicapped by the lack of a full-time
executive although the situation should be changed now due to recent legislation
which upgraded it to a National Road Safety Commission. A review of the activities
undertaken by the previous Committee and the constraints it faced, including
a lack of funding, were presented at the 1997 Third African Road Safety Congress
(Kwayke et al, 1997).

The National Road Safety Commission Act 1999 should establish an independent
Commission with its secretariat headquarters based in Accra and a regional road
safety officer in each region to facilitate national coordination. The Commission
will also benefit from an allocation from the Road Fund (approximately US$300,000)
for the year 2000 but this funding is dependent on the Commission developing
an Action Plan that is accepted. Discussions have also begun about the introduction
of a safety levy on insurance premiums (Ross, Nov.1999).

Nigeria

The road safety management structure in Nigeria was reviewed at a 3-day national
workshop in 1997. This led to the establishment of a Federal Road Safety Commission
(FRSC) in 1998, which has been described as operating a 3 tier system:

  • First tier: youths in Road Safety
    Clubs in Schools
  • Second tier: uniformed Road Marshalls
    and Commanders who are employed by the FRSC to help reduce road crashes.
  • Third tier: volunteer Special Marshalls
    who do not have uniforms but are authorised to arrest and prosecute traffic
    offenders, give lectures, offer research services and advice (Yakusai, 1998).

In 1997, there were approximately 8,000 Special Marshalls operating
nationwide and the FRSC described its approach as that of "precaution, education,
subtle force and full enforcement".

Senegal

The French Ministry for Cooperation and the French Ministry of
Transport collaborated on the implementation of a road safety policy in West
Africa. The French had already introduced a system of sharing information within
the sub-region and were using pilot projects to demonstrate best practice. Starting
with a national road safety seminar in 1993, Senegal was chosen for the road
safety pilot project. Locally identified priorities included improving the crash
data system, driver training, awareness raising activities, and vehicle inspection.
The activities undertaken for each of these areas were described in a presentation
(Bodon, 1997). After developing a standardised report form, a training programme
in crash reporting procedures was undertaken in the 10 regional capitals. Two
local computer analysts were trained in France and computerisation of crash
data begun in 1994.

The effectiveness of the project was evaluated in 1997 at a follow-up
seminar which was attended by Mali, Burkino Faso and Guinea. These countries
subsequently adopted some of the initiatives in their own countries.

Botswana

Botswana's National Road Safety Committee is arguably one of the
most successful in Africa and is very successful in terms of publicity and education
initiatives. Established in 1975, it is supported by some 27 District Road Safety
Committees which were introduced in 1983 and are who are usually headed by the
District Commissioner.

Zimbabwe

Established in 1971, the Zimbabwe Traffic Safety Board had 6 offices
in 5 towns and was financed by a grant from the Ministry of Transportation.
In 1999, the ZTSB had a total staff of 45, including 25 road safety officers,
of which 9 had been trained. ZTSB is very active in raising public awareness
of road safety and it runs school visits, cycle training, safety weeks, publicity
campaigns, etc.

Zambia

The present National Road Safety Council in Zambia was established
by an Act of Parliament in December 1995 but it did not receive any funding
until January 1997, when it was allocated a quarter of the amount its predecessor,
the Roads and Road Traffic Board (RRTB) had received. Public sector representation
was limited with the public sector representatives not even allowed to vote.
The Council did not include a representative of the Ministry of Health but there
was a representative from the Zambia Medical Council.

A 1997 World Bank funded study reviewed the road safety situation
in Zambia, including the effectiveness of the National Road Safety Council and
drafted a 2 year action plan (Aeron-Thomas, 2000). The World Bank has since
allocated the National Road Safety Council US$500,000 for institutional strengthening
of the Council and is also financing the upgrading of the crash data system
and training of traffic police.

Tanzania

Established in 1973, the National Road Safety Council of Tanzania
was under the Prime Minister's Office until 1990 when it was transferred to
the Minister for Home Affairs (the Ministry responsible for Road Traffic). The
Council was established with both advisory and executive functions, the latter
including the provision of road user education and information campaigns and
the identification of hazardous locations. In 1986, four committees were created
and the Traffic Police Commander was made the Secretary to the Council with
his office functioning as the Secretariat. Regional and District Traffic Police
Officers were to be the Secretaries of any Regional or District Road Safety
Committees (Ministry of Works, 1996).

The Council has organised Road Safety Weeks at the national level
but these were limited for various reasons including lack of funding, coordination
and accountability, a top heavy council, and low priority allocated road safety
by Traffic Police Commander. A new structure for the Council was proposed, including
the transfer of responsibility to the Ministry of Works, with both the advantages
and disadvantages reviewed (Ministry of Works, 1996). Funding sources were also
proposed and included a US$2 dollar levy per motor vehicle per annum.

At a recent seminar on Road Safety, a paper discussed the relevance
of the Highway Safety Management System (SMS) for Tanzania. (Chobya, 1999).
A SMS involves a systematic approach to identifying and addressing all opportunities
to reduce highway crashes. The associated activities within the four E's (Engineering,
Education, Enforcement, and Emergency Medical Services) were presented as was
an example of a SMS database system.

Namibia

Namibia has recently adopted an integrated traffic safety management
system after realising that its post independence (1989) approach to traffic
safety, where responsibility was given to a secretariat in the Ministry of Works,
Transport and Communication, was incapable of delivering adequate priority to
traffic safety. It was appreciated that a holistic integrated systems approach
was needed but that the traffic management systems approach adopted in South
Africa was not suitable as it focused more on traffic management and a Traffic
Safety Management System (TSMS) was needed for Namibia.

A core group was established from the various safety disciplines
and focused on the issues identified as key:

  • Traffic administration
  • Road engineering
  • Law enforcement
  • Traffic safety education
  • Logistical support

A process approach was adopted which reviewed each key issue area
and its effects, relevant countermeasures and the recommended projects. The
approach was described as being similar to that used in South Africa for the
Traffic Management System but the focus was kept to traffic safety.

A draft Green Paper on traffic safety was produced in early 1997 for discussion purposes and a National Policy on Traffic Safety for Namibia
was expected to be submitted to the National Road Safety Council at the end
of 1997 for approval (Prosser and Pretorius, 1997). A TSMS Management committee
was established to assist with the implementation of policy and four Work Groups
(Engineering, Education, Law Enforcement, and Logistical Support) were also
organised to develop work programmes. Priority areas included marketing and
mass communication, alcohol and other drugs abuse, speed management, overloading
problem, taxi's, driver training, seat belt wearing, a forgiving road environment
and vulnerable road users (Prosser and Pretorius, 1997).

Uganda

The responsibilities of the National Road Safety Council in Uganda
(as per the Traffic and Road Safety Act of 1998) are similar to that of Tanzania's
as were the major constraints of funding and training. A 3 year Action Plan
proposed for the country included the formation of a Road Safety Unit to provide
technical support to the NRSC. The staff, office and administrative costs of
such a unit were recommended to be met by a fixed annual budget (Phoenix, 2000).

2.2 South Africa Road Safety Management

South Africa abolished it NRSC in the early 1990s and has relied
on the Directorate of Traffic Safety within the Department of Transport to coordinate
road safety activities. Many papers and presentations have discussed road safety
management as shown below with the national approach discussed before any regional
case studies.

Road traffic management strategy

This paper provides a summarised broad description towards implementation
of the nineteen chapters of road traffic management strategy and includes additional
issues provided for in the chapter on "Road Traffic and Safety" in the White
Paper on National Transport Policy of the national Department of Transport (Botha,
G, Sep-97).

The Road Traffic Management Corporation

The current road traffic management picture in South Africa is very
gloomy and innovative ways have to found to get out of this perilous situation.
To achieve the improvements required, the Road Traffic Management Corporation
(RTMC) concept was developed. This paper discusses the objectives, fuctions,
duties, financing etc of the Corporation(Van Tonder, H, Jul-99).

Towards a quantitative management approach to road traffic
safety in South Africa

To successfully reduce the number of road traffic accidents in South
Africa it is essential that limited resources be utilized as effectively and
efficiently as possible. This requires that correct decisions be made on required
resource levels and on the correct allocation of these resources to the different
possible remedial measures. The objective of this paper is to describe how a
quantitative management model could be constructed to assist road safety managers
and investors in managing road safety in the most efficient way possible (Mollett,
CJ, Jul-99).

Task and place of training colleges for traffic officials

The traffic occupations have a lack of specialised training and for
this reason the traffic officers experiences difficulty performing his task
in a professional manner. This is also one of the reasons why this occupation
enjoys less social esteem in this country. This paper a training system and
its components are discussed (Janse van Nieuwenhuizen, J, Sep-99).

Safety south of the Sahara: lessons from abroad

It is found that whenever road traffic accident statistics are related
to vehicle population, third world countries tend to have a significant worse
accident statistics than those in first world countries. An obvious question
arising is: Are there any lessons to be learned from the "safer" first world
countries that could be of benefit to sub-Saharan Africa? This paper describes
certain aspects of an investigation that was made into the road safety situation
in a wide cross-section of countries in order to address the above question(Roebuck,
CS, Sep-99).

Strategy 2000 - a end to carnage on South Africa's Roads

A discussion document towards a comprehensive road safety strategy,
including detailed implementation tables of short to medium term actions (South
Africa. Ministry of Transport, Apr-00).

Pedestrian management plans: the role of provinces and local
authorities to reduce pedestrian casualties in South Africa

An audit of the current pedestrian safety situation in terms of the
infrastructure provision, law enforcement and educational practices has been
completed. This status quo forms the basis from which a pedestrian management
plan will evolve and constitute the way forward (Makhanya, G, Sep-99).

Preparing traffic safety managers for the new millennium:
an application of the outcomes based education model

A new national diploma has been developed to address Traffic Safety
Management on an integrated basis. It is envisaged that traffic police and others
in the field of traffic safety would be sufficiently equipped with the skills
needed to enhance road safety management. The course was developed to be outcome
based and the subjects were divided into modules which would address prior learning
in terms of the National Qualifications Framework. (Van Vuuren, PEJ , Jul-99).

The implementation of a road safety management plan for
Midrand Metropolitan Local Council

This paper describes the content of the Proposed Road Safety Management
Plan for Midrand and the strategy adopted for its implementation. The town engineers
and Traffic Departments of Midrand Metropolitan Local Council have joined forces
with the South African Police Services stations in the Midrand area to form
a Road Safety Working Group. This group has prepared a strategy for the implementation
of a Road Safety Management Plan in support of the national drive to improve
road safety issues in South Africa (Prinsloo, JJA, Jul-99).

Project Asiphephe - implementation

The Asiphephe "Let us be safe" road safety project is a long-term road safety
program that is aimed at reducing road traffic accident fatalities by 50% by
the end of the year 2000. This paper provides a short discussion of the project
(Zulu, ME, Jul-99).

Asiphephe: from planning to implementation

In KwaZulu-Natal the Department of Transport has adopted a methodology
based on the road safety strategy used so successfully in the Australian State
of Victoria. The project, now termed Asiphephe (let us be safe) has moved from
the planning phase to the implementation phase. This paper concentrates on the
practical aspects of the implementation strategy and successes to date (Barker,
RJ, Sep-99).

Implementing an integrated road traffic safety program in
KwaZulu-Natal


The Australian state of Victoria's integrated road safety program has achieved
large reductions in road trauma, massive economic savings to the community,
substantial net revenue from fines and has lowered the costs of penalty management.
This paper identifies the key elements of the Victorian model and elaborates
the principles underlying the key elements of traffic law enforcement and mass
media public awareness campaigns as they are being implemented in KwaZulu-Natal
(Smith, RR , Sep-99).

Project Victoria in KwaZulu-Natal

The number of road accidents, with resultant injuries and deaths, on
South African roads is unacceptably high. A project was implemented to improve
the level of road traffic safety. This paper describes the procedures and methodology
adopted by the authorities in implementing a sophisticated road traffic safety
system into the broad spectrum of cultures and driving expertise found in KwaZulu-Natal
(Barker, RJ, Sep-97).

The Balgowan traffic safety management project

The high accident and fatality rate on our roads is of national concern. A section
of the N3 in the vicinity of Balgowan had a particularly poor accident record.
This paper describes the approach adopted to investigate the accident problems
at Balgowan. Remedial measures have been implemented and the project has been
successful in reducing the number and severity of accidents on this section
of the N3 (Deppe, EE, Sep-97).

Evaluation of road safety initiatives in KwaZulu-Natal between
April 1997 and September 1999

The report evaluates the road safety initiatives implemented in KwaZulu-Natal
since the inception of the Asiphephe Road Safety Programme. The programme is
based on a customised version of the model successfully used in Victoria, Australia
to reduce road casualties. The main issues covered in the report are: an overview
of the Asiphephe Project, the approach and objectives of the evaluation process,
the methodology followed, an evaluation of national and provincial structures
to promote road traffic safety, an evaluation of the co-ordination of road safety
programmes by the different agencies in KwaZulu-Natal and the evaluaton of the
effectiveness of the implementation of road safety measures within the key organisations
responsible for road safety in KwaZulu-Natal. A number of recommendations are
offered (Asiphephe Evaluation Panel, Oct-99).

Traffic management - a systems approach: Lower South Coast
experiment - An opinion and awareness study in 1994


Attention was given to the opinions of the public with regard to traffic law
enforcement, engineering measures, ambulance and rescue services. The awareness
of DTS projects, the availability of traffic safety educational material in
schools and the awareness of the Experiment itself were also investigated (Cronje,
CPR J, Jun-96).

The Knysna micro traffic management plan - an opinion and
awareness study

The objectives of this research were to determine the opinions of the
public with regard to traffic law enforcement, traffic engineering measures,
the environment and emergency services as well as their awareness of traffic
safety educational projects and aids (Cronje, CPR, Nov-94).

KwaZulu road traffic safety study

This report provides information on road traffic collisions and casualties in
KwaZulu, identifies problems in the collision reporting system and identifies
short-, medium and long-term road traffic safety priorities. Recommendations
are made towards improving the road traffic safety environment in KwaZulu (Van
Niekerk, EC, Mar-92).

Lebowa road traffic safety study

The study provides the Lebowa Road Traffic Safety Committee with a proper
data base on road traffic collisions and casualties. It also identifies the
short, medium and long term road traffic aspects which should be attended to
by the Committee. It consists of three sections: the trends in road traffic
collisions and casualties since 1985 are analysed; a detailed analysis is done
in respect of road traffic collisions and casualties during 1989 and hazardous
road sections are identified and appropriate countermeasures are recommended
(Ribbens, H, Dec-90).

Quality control: practical manual and implementation

The use of quality control for seven different models, namely seat belt wearing
and alcohol drinking rates, speed, stop street and traffic signal infringements,
visibility and following distances (Elphinstone, CD, Oct-90).

3 Road Safety Funding

Financing of road safety activities was one of the priority areas
identified in the Second United Nations Transport and Communications Decade
in Africa (UNTACDA II), covering the period 1991-2000 (ECA, 1997), yet few funding
references were found. A general review of road safety financing was presented
at the most recent African Road Safety Conference (Wetteland and Lundebye, 1997).

The two basic methods of self-financing and development aid financing
were also summarised (Dhliwayo, 1997).

3.1 Self-financing

Government grants are the main source of funding for road safety
activities (traffic policing, traffic signs and hospital treatment, etc.) but
this is still found to be insufficient, especially in the areas outside road
maintenance and construction (Assum 1997). As of 1997, Ghana's National Road
Safety Council was receiving less than US$10,000 a year from the government
(Kwake et al, 1997) for its operation and publicity activities. Insufficient
financing was found in other countries as well with Zimbabwe receiving less
than one fourth its requested amount in 1997 (total of $5.1 million instead
of $24 million) and the case of Zambia has already been described. In Uganda,
the government spent US$300 million on road rehabilitation in a recent decade,
but less than US$ 0.05 per head per annum is spent on road safety publicity
and education (Kwamusi, 1996).

In Zimbabwe, in addition to maintaining the Zimbabwe Traffic Safety
Board and its activities, the government also used to subsidise defensive driving
courses to make them more affordable for drivers. In Zambia, the government
has occasionally provided the fuel for the mobile patrols conducted by the Honorary
Road Marshalls, private citizens who are authorised to assist in traffic law
enforcement (Ross, 1999).

3.2 Road funds

Of the five countries in Africa with road funds, none have a dedicated
amount for road safety work and Ethiopia and Ghana are the only countries known
where the Road Fund regulations specifically mention road safety measures. This
has not resulted in increased road safety investment with the only road safety
related activity being financed by the Road Fund so far to be the rehabilitation
of traffic signs in Addis Ababa (TRL, 2000). The Road Fund Board in Ethiopia
also rejected the idea of reserving 1-2 per cent of the Road Fund for road safety
measures.

The Road Fund in Ghana has recently agreed to allocate US$300,000
to the new National Road Safety Commission after it develops an acceptable action
plan (Ross, Nov. 1999). While the majority of road safety programmes are funded
through bilateral or multi-lateral aid, self-financing is receiving more attention
since the introduction of road funds. Botswana has had a levy (5 Pula per motor
vehicle) paid annually by all users/owners of cars living in or visiting the
country. Benin is also reported to contribute to the cost of road safety programmes
from vehicle inspection fees.

User fees were proposed to become the long term financial source
for road safety work in Tanzania, including:

  • Third party insurance levy
  • Annual road safety levy paid by
    vehicle owners
  • Vehicle inspection fee
  • Driving school levy
  • Driving licence fee
  • Portion of road fund
  • Portion of traffic fines (Assum,
    1998)
3.2.1 Traffic fines

A share of the traffic fines collected has been requested reserved
for road safety in several countries, including Zimbabwe and Ethiopia. No country
in Africa is believed to receive any part of the income received from traffic
fines for safety measures (unlike Vietnam where traffic fines are allocated
to road safety work). There has been progress with overloading fines being allocated
to Road Funds in some countries (including Ethiopia although this has yet to
be enforced). In Zimbabwe, the Ministry of Education has recently been allowed
to keep school fees so there is a precedent for hypothecation of traffic fines.
In Zambia, the Transport has requested a portion of the traffic fines imposed
by road inspectors be allocated to road inspectors.

3.2.2 Motor vehicle insurance

The potential role of the insurance companies in sponsoring road
safety was highlighted at the recent Third African Road Safety Congress with
the example of Switzerland where 1 per cent of motor vehicle insurance premiums
is collected by the Government and allocated to road safety (Dhliwayo, 1997).
South Africa and Benin are the only countries known in Africa where motor vehicle
insurance premiums contribute regularly to road safety activities.

The National Road Safety Commission Act 1999 in Ghana includes
provision for a levy on mandatory third party insurance and the Insurance Commissioner
has agreed in principle to funding road safety activities from motor vehicle
insurance premiums (Ross, Nov. 1999).

3.3 Donor Financed Projects

Donors have financed almost all major road safety programmes in
Africa. This includes Botswana, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Togo, Malawi, and Ghana.
The example of Togo is presented here where a World Bank financed road safety
project (1991-95) team included members of the German Road Safety Council and
sought the close involvement of Togolese experts. Some of the outputs included:

  1. A restructuring and updating of the Togolese road traffic legislation and
    the production of a rulebook on traffic regulations, licensing requirements
    for vehicles, licensing requirements for persons, and traffic offences.
  2. Standardised vehicle inspection forms.
  3. Development of a six month driving instructor training course which concludes
    with an exam consisting of a written and oral art, a demonstration lesson
    and a practical demonstration lesson in the vehicle. Practical training was
    emphasised and the course included an introduction to first aid provided by
    the Togolese Red Cross (Toure, 1997).
3.3.1 South Africa Funding of Road Safety

No specific references on funding of road safety in South Africa
were identified. As discussed in the next section, South Africa currently funds
both compensation and prevention activities from motor vehicle insurance.

4 Motor Vehicle Insurance

Almost all countries in Africa are believed to have mandatory
third party insurance requirements for motor vehicles. Eritrea and Ethiopia
are two exceptions although in Ethiopia, a Working Committee has recently been
formed to reconsider introducing compulsory third party insurance.

Harmonisation of regional motor vehicle insurance legislation
has been a priority for both the Southern African Development Corporation (SADC)
and the Common Market of East and Southern Africa (COMESA). In 1999, a SADC/COMESA
Regional Workshop on Third Party Motor Vehicle Insurance (Yellow Card Scheme)
discussed the Model Motor Vehicle Insurance Act with the following recommendations:

  1. Mandatory insurance for liability to third parties
  2. For property damage, third party liability insurance equal to US$10,000
    per person, with a maximum of US$100,000 per collision.
  3. For bodily injury, third party liability insurance to be a minimum equal
    to US$10,000.
  4. Third party liability insurance coverage for passengers for reward is limited
    to US$10,000 per person, with a maximum of $100,000 per incident.
  5. No coverage for guest passengers, i.e. non fee-paying passengers (except
    for medical expenses as #7).
  6. No cover for employees, assuming the existence of a Workman's Act.
  7. Mandatory first party medical expenses cover up to US150 per occupant of
    vehicle
  8. Annual adjustments of the above amounts to account for inflation, currency
    depreciation or economic conditions.
  9. Government vehicles are to be insured to be deemed to be insured by the
    government (this allows governments the choice of self-insurance).
  10. Insurers may require a roadworthiness inspection as a condition of undertaking
    insurance.
  11. Financial sanctions against claimants who violate certain law are imposed
    on two classes of law violators uninsured claimants and claimants not wearing
    seat belts.
  12. Recognition and membership in the Yellow Card Scheme for insuring foreign
    motorists. (SADC/COMESA, 1999)

Three subjects considered for harmonisation which were not included
in the Model Act were:

  1. No-fault systems of compensation
  2. Fuel Levy Systems
  3. Compensation for Victims of Unidentified (Hit and Run) Motorists

At present, fault based systems dominate the insurance industry
in Africa and there was little local interest in converting to a no-fault system.
Eritrea and Ethiopia are believed to be the only COMESA members which require
the driver to prove he is not at fault (COMESA, 1998). The Yellow Card scheme
does include mandatory medical insurance coverage (#7) without proof of fault
and Botswana allows for the funeral expenses for child fatalities (14 years
or younger).

Five SADC countries fund mandatory third party bodily injury compensation
from their fuel levy. This system ensures that all motorists are insured. Cost
is related to risk with vehicle kilometres travelled and fuel consumption the
proxy for risk. The main problem encountered with this system is that compensation
claims have tended to exceed revenues and governments do not want to increase
fuel levies. In 1998, Botswana responded to this problem by introducing a ceiling
on compensation of 1 million pula.

Hit and run victims are guaranteed compensation in only a few
African countries. In Zimbabwe, a fund for victims of hit and run and uninsured
vehicles is paid for by a levy on insurers. Uganda introduced a similar fund
in 1988 but it lasted less than three years. Hit and run victims are eligible
for compensation in Swaziland but with a much lower ceiling. In four countries,
fuel levy funds finance compensation to victims of unidentified vehicles. Standard
requirements include the crash being reported to the police (SADC/COMESA, 1999).

The COMESA Yellow Card Compendium was produced in 1998 and provides
much information on the insurance system within 17 countries. The scheme included
medical expenses for drivers and passengers and in the event of a collision,
the only requirement (re compensation) is that it is reported to the police
(COMESA, 1998).

While the insurance industry has collaborated on the Yellow Card
Scheme, there is not believed to be a similar organisation to the Loss Prevention
Association in India or the Insurance Association for Highway Safety in the
United States for promoting road safety awareness among the general public.

4.1 Motor Vehicle Insurance in South Africa

Mandatory third party insurance was introduced in South Africa
in 1942 and in 1986 the Motor Vehicle Accidents Fund Act of 1986 authorised
the system where third party insurance was funded through a fuel levy. The current
system was revised under the Road Accident Fund Act of 1996. (Road Accident
Fund, 1997).

Many government inquiries have been undertaken into the motor
vehicle insurance system with draft white papers circulated for public discussion
(Director-General Transport 1996, 1997). The White Paper on the Road Accident
Fund, published in early 1998, reviewed the weaknesses of the current system
and the different options, including limiting compensation, and introducing
no-fault insurance. (Government Gazette, 1998).

5 Community Participation

Community participation can be found as far back as some of the
early establishment of African NRSCs. Botswana has had service clubs on its
NRSC since its formation in 1975 and Tanzania's NRSC (1977) included a representative
from an organisation for accident victims (Assum, 1998). In Zambia, the NRSC
(see table above) is comprised primarily of non-government organisations and
includes the Passenger, Pedestrian and Cyclist Association.

As donor-assisted and nationally led, i.e. top-down, road safety
programmes prove difficult to sustain, there is renewed appreciation of the
need for community support, especially at the local level. At the Third African
Road Safety Congress (1997), there were three related presentations, two on
community road safety (Kwamasi Paul, de Beer, 1997) and one reviewing the role
of the road safety NGOs and the World Bank's long standing policy of collaborating
with NGOs (Lundebye and Ellevset, 1997). The Norwegian Society for Road Safety
(NRSS), the umbrella organisation for all voluntary road safety work in Norway,
was highlighted, including its functions, organisational structure and funding
sources (over half from government and the rest from insurance companies, annual
fees of members and Children Traffic Club membership fees). The Bangladesh experience
was also summarised; a 1996 seminar on the Role of NGOs in Road Safety led to
the proposal for NGO pilot projects in traffic safety education in schools,
information/public awareness campaigns, transport operators, rehabilitation
centres and legal aspects.

5.1.1 Uganda

In 1996, Uganda, a sociologist and an ex police officer started
the Uganda Road Safety Network (URSN) with the following objectives:

  • To raise the level of safety awareness
    among road users to change the unfavourable road situation
  • To fill the Road Safety Management
    Gap in light of increasing road accident rates.
  • To bridge the gap existing between
    Road users on one hand, and Policy Makers on Road Safety agencies on the other
    by providing a forum for greater road user participation in accident reduction
  • To cooperate with road safety agencies
    using a complimentary approach in execution of relevant safety programmes
  • To involve the local community into
    more participation in road safety issues for road accident reduction.
  • To develop a local pressure group
    to champion and lobby for road safety interests and causes (Kwamasi Paul,
    June 1996).

The Network has developed a project proposal which includes the
activities of:

  1. Road safety consultancy providing institutional strengthening of road safety
    related organisations.
  2. Training services: senior management, training of trainers, defensive driving,
    etc.
  3. School safety schemes where the URSN will provide the safety educators
    with the necessary logistics and materials.
  4. Road safety publicity including media and billboards, drama and road safety
    clubs, essay competitions, exhibitions and agricultural shows, film shows
    and seminars.
  5. Post accident rescue service; a 24 hour ambulance rescue service is intended
    for the second year of the project.

The proposal also included the management structure of the project,
the work plan, and how the project would be monitored and evaluated. The constitution
of the Network was also provided (Kwamasi Paul, June 1996).

The same author presented a paper at a Road Safety Seminar in
Uganda (Kwamasi Paul, July 1996) which provided more details on the proposed
programme, including performance targets. By the end of 1997, the following
was to be achieved in the pilot area:

  1. reduce the rate of accidents by 25%,
  2. provide at least 3 lesson per term to school children,
  3. heighten publicity to reach at least 60% of road users response,
  4. establish Road Safety Clubs in all schools
  5. conduct seminars for community development organisations

In addition, the programme was to have begun identifying black
spots on the road network and providing road safety information to policy makers
on a bi-monthly basis (Kwamasi Paul, July 1996).

Apart from Uganda, however, the only references found dedicated
to community participation in road safety were from CSIR/South Africa (Vermaak,
de Beers, ROBOT). In Ethiopia, Radda Barnen's draft Alternative Basic Education
syllabus for non-formal education included traffic safety lessons and this initiative
is discussed in Chapter 12 Traffic Safety Education for Children.

5.2 Community Safety in South Africa

South Africa has benefited from the presence of Drive Alive, an
active road victims' campaign group. Drive Alive has been instrumental in raising
awareness of victims' needs and in 1998, it organised an interprofessional conference
on the impact of road death and injury conducted seminars on the Impact of Road.
Drive Alive is believed to be the only African (associate) member of the European
Federation of Road Traffic Victims.

Drive Alive has recently established a partnership with Soul City,
a health based NGO in South Africa, and together, they have produced a 26 part
children's television serial based on Trauma. Each episode concludes with a
discussion among children and there is a book on each episode which will be
distributed to every grade 7 pupil in the country. The book also comes with
a reflective tie-on strip which children are encouraged to wear while walking
on the road. Drive Alive and Soul City are also campaigning to have reflective
material become a required part of school uniforms.

Other good examples of community support for road safety in South
Africa include:

Women for Traffic Safety

In 1991, the Directorate of Traffic Safety and the Women's Bureau of
South Africa collaborated on a "Women for Traffic Safety" project. The project
began with a training seminar for six "ambassadors", a competition in a popular
woman's magazine, and launches in two cities. A project kit was produced which
included a 20 minute video produced in both Afrikaans and English, a pamphlet
on road safety, a traffic safety award leaflet, and the outline of a speech
which could be used by other women to promote traffic safety (Robot, January/February
1993).

Eye Sense for your License

In 1999, the South African Optometrist Association (SASO) began the
campaign "Eye Sense for your License" which provided free vision screenings
for the renewal of drivers' licenses. A special watermarked and numbered certificate
was given with each screening, which is accepted by the traffic departments
for proof that vision has been retested. This initiative reduced waiting time,
allowed more regular and frequent eye checks and also helped multi-focal wearers
who would have fail the eye sight checks given by the traffic department due
to their equipment limitations (Robot, Winter 1999).

As mentioned previously, CSIR has also been actively promoting
community safety and has published the two following papers on community safety
projects underway in South Africa.

Community-driven traffic safety: the "bottom-up" approach


This paper serves to report on the development and progress to date
of the Eastern Gauteng Traffic Safety Programme, a project pioneered by the
Eastern Gauteng Services Council. Working with communities is a continuous learning
process. This paper also serves to share years of experience in community-driven
traffic safety, the "bottom-up" approach, with the traffic safety community
(Salida, EE, Jul-99).

Participatory Road Safety Educational Technologies (PET):
a community-driven approach

This paper looks at the various participatory educational technologies
(PET), developed by the CSIR, in a framework of a community-driven process.
The process and technologies are presented and discussed as they were implemented
in the community of Mamelodi. PET is a alternative methodology of teaching high
school students about traffic safety. It is a dialogical, problem-posing approach
that leads to action for change. The learning process of three high schools
in Pretoria, in terms of PET, is discussed (Vermaak, L, Sep-99).

5.3 Private sector sponsorship

The Global Road Safety Partnership (GRSP) have identified Ghana,
South Africa and Zambia as 3 of its 15 focus countries for demonstrating public
private partnerships in road safety.

Since 1997, the petroleum industry in Ghana has been investing
in defensive driver training for industry trainers. Shell Ghana introduced the
programme originally for its contractors after they were involved in 19 fatalities
in 1997. Shell Ghana established a facility for defensive driver training and
vehicle inspection (with the country's only brake roller tester). A comprehensive
eye test is also conducted at the facility. Mobil is now also participating
in the programme and the name has been changed from Shell Facility to Petroleum
Road Transport Safety Limited. Over 800 drivers have now been tested and there
were no road fatalities reported by any Shell transporter in 1999. There are
also plans to expand the service to other petrol companies and transport firms
as well as to other locations in the country.

Ghana also benefits from the presence of the Emerging Leaders
for Development (ELD), an organisation which has included road safety among
its social commitment for several years. The lollipop safety scheme, whereby
children were assisted at pedestrian crossings, was initiated by an ELD member
who also arranged private sector funding (Winnet, 2000).

In Botswana, a joint venture in Botswana has led to the first
children's traffic school being built in Gaborone. Sponsorship was provided
by Shell Oil Botswana, UNICEF, Aspahalt Botswana and other companies while subsequent
children't traffic safety schools are reported to be provided for in the National
Development Plan (Department of Road Transport and Safety, 1997).

In Harare, the private sector is sponsoring a pilot programme
targetting child pedestrian safety at two schools. These schools were selected
on the basis of their poor crash record. The new students in the first two years
are given reflective jackets to improve their conspicuity to drivers. They are
also given lessons in safe road use and their parents are given similar training,
along with the proper care and maintenance of the reflective jacket.

5.3.1 South Africa

The Road Accident Fund has been the main sponsor of South Africa's
Arrive Alive campaign. Robot, the South African Department of Transport road
safety quarterly magazine reported other private sector sponsorship for the
December 1998/January 1999 holiday period to include:

  • Shell/Fleetwatch: Poster-sized stickers
    were distributed to transport fleets.
  • Shell Oil: Posters on road safety
    were displayed at service stations
  • Motor Industry Federation: The Life
    and Limb print campaign appeared in national newspapers and offered free vehicle
    checks over the holiday season.
  • Blood Transfusion Services (BTS):
    The BTS Holiday campaign focussed on road deaths and posters carried both
    the BTS and Arrive Alive logo's.
  • Vodacom and MTN: Messages appeared
    on cell hones and pre-recorded messages were played on voice-mail retrieval.
  • Eskom: Arrive Alive posters, license
    and bumper stickers were printed for the fleet.
  • National print media: The Minister
    negotiated free advertising in several national newspapers.
  • South African Breweries: Don't drink
    and drive TV and radio advertising was produced. Billboards in support of
    Arrive Alive were also erected. R1.5 million was promised to Arrive Alive.
  • Gilbeys: Radio Advertising and free
    transport from office parties to home (Robot, Autumn 1999).

6 Crash Data System

Crash data has been a priority in many countries and on many projects
as a good database is a prerequisite for a scientific and analytical approach
to improving road safety. SARTTO identified the improvement of the quality of
crash data among its member countries as a basic aim. At the Thirteenth SARTTO
meeting in Swaziland in 1991, a TRL presentation proposed that its program Microcomputer
Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) be adopted as the SARTTO standard. At the time,
MAAP was about to be used in four countries, thus making it the most widespread
crash data program in Africa (Baguley, 1991). The presentation included the
background of the development of MAAP and a summary of some of the other locations
where it was operating.

MAAP was introduced to Africa in 1986 when it was piloted in Botswana
for one year before being adopted as the national standard. Crash location details
were given much priority and a standardised system introduced with major towns
using both a system of node numbers and grid coordinates. Kilometre posts were
installed along all major interurban roads which enabled crashes to be identified
by the road number, nearest kilometre post and direction to the nearest feature.
With the introduction of MAAP, Botswana began identifying its crash patterns
and worst locations and developing a programme of appropriate remedial measures
(Baguley, 1991).

MAAP continued to expand in the 1990s and was introduced in Ghana
in 1989 and Zimbabwe (1991). It is now used in a total of six African countries
including Botswana, Ghana, Tanzania (Dar es Salaam only), Uganda (pilot project),
Zimbabwe, Swaziland and it has been piloted in Malawi. A paper at the Third
African Road Safety Congress in 1997 described the implementation and use of
MAAP in these six countries. The topics covered included the background to each
installation and the training undertaken, office procedures adopted, data use,
institutional involvement, technical support and future developments. Findings
included MAAP being more easily introduced when it was able to replace rather
than merge with an existing data collection system and the conclusion that further
technical support would be needed to these countries in the medium term at least
(Gorell, 1997). The crash report forms are customised to local specifications
and the paper included a comparison of the record formats used in each country.
Zimbabwe and Swaziland had 53 fields on their report forms while Tanzania and
Ghana collected 95 and 94 respectively.

Botswana produces an annual road traffic safety report to publicise
the magnitude of its road crash problem. The most recent report (1997) covered
the following topics:

  • Road safety costs
  • Botswana's Road traffic accident
    problem
  • Pedestrian accidents
  • Child casualty problem
  • Driver training
  • Vehicle examination
  • Attitude of road users
  • Who?
  • Where?
  • When?
  • Alcohol (Department of Road Transport
    and Safety)

Manual road crash reporting systems were still in use in Benin
and the Ivory Coast a few years back (Assum, 1998).

All countries are believed to use police data as the source of
road casualty statistics although under-reporting of road casualties is openly
acknowledged in many countries (Assum, 1997, Aeron-Thomas, 2000). The extent
of fatality under-reporting was considered in the recent TRL report "Estimating
Global Road Fatalities" which sought to produce a practical estimate of the
number of lives currently being lost to road crashes (TRL, 2000). Traditional
engineering approaches had used police data, while acknowledging it to be incomplete,
while the WHO had recently estimated road fatalities on a regional basis using
a complex system of models and predictions. WHO had predicted as high as 170,000
lives would be lost in road crashes in Africa in 1998, a figure several times
that being reported in official statistics (WHO, 1999).

6.1 South Africa Crash Data Systems and Analysis

South Africa is currently updating its crash data system with
the introduction of the National Traffic Information System (NATIS) and TRAFMAN.
Some recent crash data studies in South Africa were identified as:

Implementation of the national accident register in Gauteng
Province


The paper provides an overview of the planing and implementation phases of the
National Accident Register in Gauteng. It also highlights some of the problems
encountered in the process (Arran, KM, Jul-99).

Potgieter street traffic safety project

Potgieter street has acquired a reputation as being a route known for heavy
vehicle related accidents involving multiple passenger vehicles. Public outcries
urged the involved authorities to investigate the extent of the traffic safety
of Potgieter Street. The project team had the task of identifying the potential
hazardous conditions in the street, of establishing the cause of accidents that
occurred in the past years on this route and addressing these problems with
solutions. This paper is a short discussion of the work and findings of the
project team Van Schalkwyk, I, Sep-99).

National speed response programme: A summary of the contributing
factors to fatal collisions from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 1994


The aim of the National Speed Response Programme is to identify contributing
factors to fatal road traffic collisions. The purpose of this report is to determine
the factors that contributed to 3050 fatal collisions investigated form 1 January
1994 to 31 December 1994 (Mynhardt, DC, Apr-95).

Traffic accidents at intersections in Cape Town

There is a growing awareness of the economic consequences of road collisions
and there is a need to reduce collisions through road improvements. Urban intersections
can be particularly hazardous locations within a road network. The objectives
of this study were to investigate techniques for the study of collisions and
to determine the effect of intersection control type on different collision
types. The most important finding of the study was that the total number of
collisions occurring at an intersection is not much affected by the control
type and that there is not truth in the popular ideas that collisions are higher
at stop controlled intersections than at signals. The study was restricted to
intersections in Cape Town. Available data restricted the study to stop and
signal controlled intersections only. A combination of regression and matched
group analysis was used with hypothesis testing for statistical significance
(Lee-Jones, KC, Jun-94).

Methods to obtain, analyse and present collision data

This report describes a pilot study conducted to assess the need for a course
on: Methods to obtain, analyse and use collision data (De Beer, EJH, May-93).

7 Road Safety Engineering

The importance of safe road environment has been a consistent
theme among donor agencies and international organisations. Road safety engineering
is traditionally divided into the proactive crash preventive measures, which
reduce the risk of crashes and reactive crash reduction measures, which address
existing problem areas.

7.1 Crash prevention (planning and design)

While not restricted to Africa, the then Overseas Development
Administration (ODA) funded manual "Towards Safer Roads in Developing Countries;
A Guide for Planners and Engineers", is still a key reference for both policy
makers and engineers. Each chapter included a short introduction which was then
followed by 2 page sections on key planning or design features. A standardised
layout was used with examples of both bad and good practice provided. The table
of contents is shown below in Table 7.1.

The Road Safety Checklists included were for land-use/physical plans, network
planning, highway design, and countermeasures related activities. A checklist
for a site visit to hazardous locations was provided in a separate appendix.
Towards Safer Roads has served as the basis of several training courses and
a slidepack is also available (TRRL, 1991).

DFID has invested in follow-up research in the cost and safety
efficient design (CASE) of rural roads in developing countries. CASE is investigating
the relationship between design, operating characteristics and crash rates with
the objective of identifying where safety and cost can be optimised. Four of
the five countries participating in the study are in Africa (Botswana, Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, and Malawi).

Design Guides

Faced with the problem of roads being built to different standards,
often to the road designer's national standard, many countries have revised
their Geometric Design Standards in the last few years. The first comprehensive
geometric design manual for roads for the Ethiopian Roads Authority was recently
produced. Safety was given much consideration as indicated by the preface.

the authors are of the opinion
that safety should receive a strong emphasis, and this factor is considered
repeatedly in this manual. A highway designer must strive to eliminate hazardous
conditions, or dangerous unexpected situations for the driver to face. In
a safe design, the designer should think in terms of a driver using the
road in less than ideal circumstances. Consider a wet pavement, nighttime
use, where the driver is using the road for the first time, and perhaps
he has had a few drinks. If this combination of elements results in an unsafe
environment for the driver, it can be considered that the design is insufficient
(Ethiopian Roads Authority, 1999)."

In Tanzania, a safety audit was conducted on the Mikumi-Kidatu road, a gravel
road which was to be upgraded to bitumen standard. As with many highways, narrow
bridges located on the highway and especially at sharp corners, were a safety
problem. The design of the upgraded road included the added safety features
of

  • pedestrian walkways to the bridges
  • speed humps and road signs (including
    reflective warning signs) at approaches to narrow bridges
  • guard rails at bridges and where
    large drops (above 3 metres) occur
  • bus bays and parking areas
  • straightened approach to Ruaha Bridge
    (Kiza and Kayoza, 1997).

A recent World Bank funded project in Uganda was to revise the chapters of
the Road Design Manual, which pertained to geometric design, junctions and road
furniture (including traffic sings and road markings). Key design features which
required priority attention included the need for a wide shoulder (2 m) on Class
1 rural roads. The study proposed the following design elements for urban arterial
roads:

  • Dual carriageway, with a kerbed
    median and kerb and channel at the outer edge.
  • Each carriageway 8.0 m width, comprised
    of 4.5 m lane (including a 1.0 m shoulder for cyclists), and a 3.5 m auxiliary
    lane.
  • Pavement markings at 3.5 m from
    the median
  • Kerbed median minimum width 1.8m,
    desirable width 3.0m.
  • Footpath minimum width 2.0m, typically
    3.0m

A recent doctoral thesis has resulted in an extensive analysis of the crash
situation within Addis Ababa and on an adjoining intercity road. (Berhanu, 2000)
The role of road and traffic factors was compared on the crash rates of urban
and rural locations. Models were developed which related traffic accident frequencies
with road and traffic explanatory variables. These predictive models were recommended
for use in assessing the potential safety performance of various geometric design
and traffic management alternatives as well as improving the traffic safety
training of engineers.

Vulnerable Road User safety

The 1997 UNECA Study on the Improvement of Pedestrian and Child Safety in Urban
Areas also emphasised reducing the crash risk through better planning of cities
and the provision of good transport infrastructure and facilities. Key planning
guidelines recommended included:

  • Urban planners should consider a
    functional classification for the road network. More use of the cul-de-sacs
    grid system in residential areas.
  • Activities that are expected to
    attract heavy pedestrian traffic should be located away from the main roads.
  • Urban planners should consider land
    use plans that minimises the travelling distances, use of cars, thus encouraging
    more pedestrian walking rather than vehicle traffic.
  • Urban planners should consider in
    their city planning the possibilities of segregating the movement of pedestrians
    from that of vehicles.
  • City traffic restraint should be
    practices such as heavy parking fees, restricted parking areas, etc. (UNECA,
    1997)

The Study also included recommendations for several other areas, including
road and traffic engineering measures.

Road safety has been a main focus within the urban transport component of the
World Bank's Sub Saharan African Transport programme. Focusing on pedestrian
safety, the safety objectives include:

  1. Assess the knowledge among pedestrians as to accident risk and identify
    required pedestrian behaviour;
  2. Examine the effect of specific safety measures on pedestrian behaviour,
    drivers behaviour and accident risk;
  3. Raise the awareness of policy makers and road safety officials towards
    pedestrian safety;
  4. Select particularly dangerous urban areas in terms of road safety records
    to design and implement on a pilot basis, Pedestrian Safety Guidelines, conducing
    to a Pedestrian Safety Policy including, when appropriate, the redesign of
    the urban road network (SSATP, 1997)

Draft guidelines for planning and improving facilities for pedestrians and
cyclists have recently been prepared for SSATP. The guidelines are based on
pilot projects conducted in four African cities (Dar es Salaam and Morogoro
in Tanzania and Nairobi and Eldoret in Kenya) which show, according to the author,
that traffic calming can largely eliminate the risk of serious road injuries
to pedestrians and cyclists. Self-enforcing, i.e. physical measures, are believed
necessary for improving road safety (de Langen, 1999).

DFID has also invested in research aimed at reducing pedestrian crashes through
improved road design and management. A recent project analysed pedestrian crashes
in five countries including Ghana and Zimbabwe (WS Atkins, 1998). In addition
to collecting crash data, traffic surveys, pedestrian questionnaires (including
pedestrian casualties as well as pedestrian control group) and road inventories
were undertaken to improve the understanding of pedestrian crashes and provide
design guidance to reduce pedestrian vulnerability.

Traffic Safety Policy

Despite these examples of manuals, design guides, and safety audits, road safety
does appear to be marginalised in many African countries. Whereas road authorities
were adopting environmental impact assessment policies and relocation policies,
road safety issues were too often being overlooked. Training programmes and
reorganisations of road authorities were sometimes giving little thought to
road safety.

In Ethiopia, the recent Ethiopian Roads Authority Proclamation makes no mention
of any safety responsibility and the only safety responsibilities are in a Health
and Safety Unit which is primarily concerned with workplace safety. Nor had
the Road Sector Development Programme required basic traffic signing and markings.
In light of this situation, the ongoing Ethiopian Road Safety Study proposed
the following traffic safety policy be considered for adoption in the Road Sector
Development Programme to ensure consistent and optimal safety investment was
achieved on road rehabilitation projects (Table 7.2).

7.2 Crash reduction (remedial measures)

An early, but still very useful, reference on road safety engineering
is the "Road Safety Manual on Low-Cost Engineering Countermeasures", produced
in 1990 by UNECA. This manual covers such basics as what crash and road data
should be analysed, the identification of hazardous locations, but the main
focus was on common causes of crashes and recommended solutions. Examples were
given of loss of control at junction, sharp bends, and straight bends, pedestrian
collisions at different locations, as well as vehicles travelling in the same,
converging and opposite directions. The manual contains a table of expected
safety benefits by countermeasure and crash type with unit costs provided. Key
safety aspects in road planning (road alignment, road width, sight distance
and road environment) and in junction design (junction form, use of islands,
sight distances, and bus stops near junctions) were also discussed. Design details
of speed bumps, raised zebra crossing and rumble strips and guidance on improving
a pedestrian crossing were also provided (UNECA, 1989).

In Tanzania, the engineers and the technicians from the Regional
Engineer's Office (REO) in Morogoro have benefited from training both inside
and outside Tanzania on road safety. There is also a close cooperation between
the police and the REO as the latter has a computer with MAAP5 installed and
is responsible for entering the report forms completed by the police (Kiza and
Kayoza, 1997).

The road authorities in Ghana are reported to have recently become
more proactive on road safety issues. The Ghanaian Highways Authority now has
a Safety and Environment Division which conducts safety audits on proposed schemes
and also oversees hazardous location improvement programmes on their road network.
The Department of Urban Roads has undertaken to identify the 100 worst urban
crash locations in the country and is then to introduce a remedial measures
programme (Ross, Nov. 1999). The World Bank is currently funding a Pedestrian
Action Plan which focuses on remedial measures for hazardous locations for pedestrians
(WB, 1999)

7.3 South African road safety engineering

South Africa has been very active in promoting pedestrian facilities,
safety audits and has now produced a draft 7 volume road safety manual. Some
of the key road safety engineering resources are summarised below.

The South African road safety manual: towards a safer millennium
for South Africa

This paper contains the background of the development of the South African
Road Safety Manual, a best practice, guideline document for road safety engineering
practitioners. A brief summary of the contents of the various volumes is also
included (Van Schalkwyk, I, Jul-99).

Pedestrian facility guidelines: manual to plan, design and
maintain safe pedestrian facilities

The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance on the planning, design
and maintenance of safe pedestrian facilities, both across and alongside roads
and streets, namely mid block pedestrian crossings, pedestrian refuge islands,
pedestrian facilities at intersections and junctions, scholar pedestrian crossings
and sidewalks. Practical guidance and typical layouts are also provided with
respect to the improvement of pedestrian safety at problem areas in cities,
town and on rural roads. These places inter alia are: modal transfer pints,
pedestrian malls and other pedestrian orientated areas such as suburban shopping
streets, industrial areas and pedestrian routs in residential areas. Specific
aspects such as facilities for handicapped pedestrians in the street environment
and pedestrians safety at road construction sites are dealt with (Ribbens, H,
Mar-93).

Proposed guidelines to improve pedestrian safety at freeway
interchanges


Annually more than 2000 pedestrians are killed and injured on freeways, especially
at or near interchanges. Although pedestrians are not allowed on freeways, numerous
pedestrians are crossing freeways at-grade or are using the interchange area
as a modal transfer point. The study identified 40 interchanges throughout South
Africa experiencing problems with pedestrians. The circumstances at 16 of these
interchanges were thoroughly investigated. The findings of this study suggest
that there should be a policy change with regard to the presence of pedestrians
at freeway interchanges. Law enforcement has not had the desired effect to limit
pedestrian activities. By providing safe pick-up and off-loading points on ramps,
traffic safety in general and the channelisation of pedestrians through the
interchange are will be improved. this document discusses a number of alternative
installations. Guidelines for the layout of pedestrian facilities within the
interchange area are given (De Beer, EJH, Mar-92).

The effect of rural road construction on the accident rate


The effect of rural road construction on the accident rate during and after
construction was investigated. Data was collected from the Road and Traffic
Administration Branch of the Cape Provincial Administration for 65 individual
projects. At more than 75 percent of the sites an increase in the accident rate
during construction was found. The largest increases wee for multiple vehicle
and damage only accidents. The most important finding of the study is that new
regulations for traffic control during construction caused a significant reduction
in the accident rate at these sites (Bester, CJ,Sep-93).

The revised K21: Identification and improvement of hazardous
locations


The purpose of this manual is to provide a practical and easy-to-use method
for identifying and prioritising hazardous locations in a given area, and to
provide guidelines for establishing the most cost-effective remedial measures
for a specific site. This manual is based on the CSIR Technical Manual K21,
published in 1972. Although a much more simplified approach towards the identification
of hazardous locations, and step-by-step procedures regarding the investigation
of such sites as well as determining the benefit/cost ratio's of possible improvements
are given in this manual, much of the information contained in the original
manual is repeated in this document. To assist the user, a list of collision
patterns, their probable causes and general countermeasures are given. Furthermore,
the improvement recommended for various type of collisions are described and
an estimate is given of the degree to which these improvements could reduce
collisions. Also included are updated collision costs and unit costs of road
locations (Opperman, RA, Mar-91)

Safety devices short course

A short course on safety devices was developed on behalf of the South African
Roads Board and presented at three locations in South Africa. The course was
aimed at engineers, technicians and safety officials responsible for the design,
installation and maintenance of road safety devices. The course was developed
to provide a broad overview of road safety devices as well as related aspects
affecting road safety. Notes had to be developed for a major portion of the
course. A part of the course was, however, based on a number of research reports
of the South African Roads Board and various South African design manuals. This
provided a valuable opportunity for the dissemination of local research results
to practicing professionals (Woods, DL, May-93).

The cost effectiveness of recovery areas and roadside furniture
on rural roads


This report describes the hazard index model for determining the cost-effectiveness
of alternative improvements to roadside hazards along South African rural roads.
A collision probability model was developed to estimate the probability of a
vehicle encroaching onto the roadside and striking a hazard. Basic encroachment
rates of 0.0005 and 0,001 encroachments per kilometre per year were established
for freeways and two-way two-lane roads respectively. Hazard indices were calculated
using the estimated encroachment and collision frequencies, severity indices
for various types of hazards, and collision and road authority costs. It is
recommended that road authorities implement a hazard index model to determine
the most cost-effective alternative when considering improvement to the roadside
(De Beer, EJH, Mar-92).

Guidelines for pedestrian signing

This report discusses various aspects relating to the display of guidance signs
aimed at pedestrians. Various aspects of these signs are discussed in comparison
with overseas literature, current South African practice and implemented examples.
Guidelines for aspects like the colour, shape, format, lettering style, size
and placement are proposed. An overview of available symbolic signs and proposals
for standardised symbols, where these do not currently exist, are made (Kooverjee,
SG,Mar-95) .

N2 Murchison to Marburg pedestrian road safety audit & campaign


The audit and campaign are discussed in this paper. The audit was conducted
in an effort to identify remedial measures aimed at reducing the number of pedestrian
incidents in the area (Mileham, TL, Jul-99).

Towards road safety auditing in South Africa

This paper discusses safety audit in general while reference is made to some
initiatives in South Africa. A framework for road safety auditing in South Africa
is also proposed (Ferreira, RN, Sep-99).

Safety in Traffic Operations Programmes manual: a tool to
assist road authorities with the evaluation of road safety for rural roads on
a network level


This paper aims to give a brief introduction and overviews of the STOP (Safety
in Traffic Operations Programmes) Manual. The discussion touched on the aims
of the STOP Manual, its framework and the basic principles and procedures used
during the evaluation process, without going into too much technical detail.
The STOP manual was developed to provide authorities with assessment procedures
to evaluate rural roads on a network level, in order to determine segments with
a poor safety performance and to assist authorities with the effective allocation
of funds for remedial measures (Prinsloo, JJA, Sep-99).

Evaluation of speed humps

In 1995 the Centurion Town Council started implementing traffic calming devices
such as speed humps, mini-circles and raised pedestrian crossings. To evaluate
their effectiveness and desirability, the Council performed before and after
studies at some of these facilities. The study used evidence obtained by measurements
on main traffic aspects, such as flows, composition, speeds, headways, noise
and subjective opinions of both motorists and residents. The methodology applied
in the study and the outcome thereof is briefly described in this paper (Slavik,
MM, Sep-97).

A performance evaluation of traffic safety barriers in use
in South Africa


In 1995 the University of Pretoria, as part of a concerted research endeavour
to alert authorities to roadside hazards, launched a study concerning the evaluation
of the performance of traffic barriers. The major finding of this study was
that in certain circumstances, the use of specific concrete barrier designs,
compared to steel guardrail and cable systems, have economic and safety benefits.
Based on the findings of the research, the use of the single slope concrete
barrier design was recommended for use in South Africa. A need for standard
designs and guidelines for concrete barrier use in South Africa was also identified.
This paper provides a brief overview of the study (Van Schalkwyk, I, Sep-97).

(Germiston - pedestrian study: an investigation in hazardous
locations and recommended solutions)


The study investigates pedestrian hazardous locations occuring at intersections,
mid-block and on freeways in Germiston. Recommendations are made for the improvement
of pedestrian safety at the identified hazardous locations (Ribbens, H,Mar-90).

Speed control at roadworks

Existing and alternative methods of setting speed limits and controlling speed
at roadwork sites, used by road authorities, contractors and consultants locally
and overseas, were investigated (De Beer, EJH, Jul-90).

Safe pedestrian facilities: user manual on planning and
design


This document provides guidance on the planning and design of safe pedestrian
facilities and practical guidance and solutions in respect of the improvement
of pedestrian safety at problems areas in cities (Ribbens, H, Mar-91).

Road markings: General review and recommendations


The report deals with road markings in general and covers various topics related
to road marking practice, including materials, road safety and costs. Recommendations
aimed at improving road marking practice are made (Coetzee, CH, Mar-89).

Proposed guidelines to improve pedestrian safety at freeway
interchanges


There should be a policy change with regard to the presence of pedestrians at
freeway interchanges. Law enforcement has not had the desired effect to limit
pedestrian activities. By providing safe pick-up and off-loading points on ramps,
traffic safety in general and the channelisation of pedestrians through the
interchange area will be improved. This document discusses a number of alternative
installations. Guidelines for the layout of pedestrian facilities within the
interchange area are given (De Beer, EJH, Mar-92).

Proposed guidelines to improve pedestrian safety at freeway
interchanges


This report conveys the findings of a literature survey on current practice,
locally and abroad in terms of pedestrian and modal transfer facilities at freeway
interchanges as well as a detailed study conducted at several urban and rural
freeway interchanges. Guidelines are proposed for the provision, layout and
safe locations of pedestrian and modal transfer facilities at these interchanges.
The elimination of undesirable pedestrian activities is also catered for (De
Beer, EJH, Mar-92).

National guidelines, standards and warrants for traffic
calming measures - a literature review


This report entails a detail literature review into traffic calming. The origin
of the concept and its application overseas and in South Africa formed part
of the research. The need for traffic calming, public participation and types
of measures that are generally used in traffic calming schemes are discussed
in this report (Theyse, M, Nov-94).

Towards a traffic calming policy for Class 4 and Class 5
residential streets


This report forms part of a study of a portion of Dennegeur Avenue, as an experimental
section, where certain calming measures was investigated, implemented and evaluated.
This report gives suitable description of proposed traffic calming standards
and amendments of the existing policy and the application of traffic calming
warrants. The traffic calming policies of other local authorities are also discussed.
The City of Cape Town has adopted a traffic calming policy which allows the
implementation of traffic calming measures on lower order residential streets
only (Groenewald, M Dec-99).

8 Traffic Regulations and Law Enforcement

8.1 Traffic regulations

In recent years, many African countries have updated their traffic
regulations, although a few, like Ethiopia, still have national traffic regulations
dating back to the 1960s. The Southern African Transport and Communications
Commission (SATCC) produced a Model Code on Traffic Regulations in an attempt
to promote regional harmonisation of traffic regulations among African countries
which has been an ongoing objective (SATCC, 1992).

8.2 Traffic law enforcement

8.2.1 Resources

Traffic police are notoriously under-resourced. As of 1997, the
Traffic Police in Uganda had only two stop watches for speed enforcement while
the Zambian Traffic Police had no speed detection equipment (apart from their
own speedometers), very few motor vehicles (3 patrol vehicles for Lusaka) and
a reflective vest for only one out of every 11 traffic police officers in Lusaka
(Cripps 1998, Aeron-Thomas 1998).

8.2.2 Training

The Kenya/Finland Road Safety Project included training the Kenya
Traffic Police and procuring traffic enforcement equipment as one of the first
objectives. Traffic enforcement courses were conducted between 1981 and 1986
and a manual, Traffic Police Notes on Road Safety and Traffic Law Enforcement,
was developed. The manual reviewed the basic operations involved in speed control,
enforcement of driving habits, driving without headlights, dangerous parking,
enforcement of drunken driving, condition of vehicles, overloading of vehicles,
checking of documents. Road safety education, publicity campaigns and crash
investigation were also covered as were user instructions for the new equipment,
i.e. radio telephone, breathalyser, etc. (Hassel, 1991). This manual is very
practical with good illustrations and well-presented.

Traffic police training was a key objective of a British Council
project in Uganda. A traffic police specialist provided training to 15 traffic
police trainers and conducted 2 day workshops for Senior Police Officers in
1997. The traffic police training course covered the areas of: Vehicle classification,
vehicle technology, examination of vehicles, enforcement of speed, reckless/careless
driving, overloaded vehicles, parking and obstruction, investigation of accidents,
awareness of hazardous substances, safety at road checks, road safety education,
publicity and training, and traffic control (Cripps, 1997). A follow-up visit
allowed for both evaluation of the training and refresher training (Cripps,
1999).

8.2.3 Strategic Plans

The police have been encouraged in many countries to develop strategic
plans in an attempt to promote a more pro-active management approach with targetted
deployment of the scarce resources available to police. DFID (then Overseas
Development Administration) assisted the Zambia Police Service in 1995 to develop
a strategic plan and the traffic management section is presented in Figure 1.

The Zambia Police Service Strategic Plan also included a timetable
with implementation responsibilities identified and suggested measurements of
achievement.

Corruption was highlighted in several of the reports and the Kenyan
Automobile Association was reported as having recommended that citizen groups
be established to monitor police enforcement (Assum, 1998).

8.3 South Africa Traffic Law Enforcement

KwaZulu-Natal Road Traffic Inspectorate has published its own
road traffic safety strategy (1996-2000). "Saving Lives" is a comprehensive
and well-researched document which was produced after a study tour to Victoria,
Australia. The Strategy includes information on the crash statistics, the Road
Traffic Inspectorate organisational structure, Mission Statement and the Inspectorate's
Code of Ethics. Projects were proposed for the 16 priority areas identified
which included: drinking and driving, speeding, pedestrians, heavy vehicle operations,
restraint wearing, drivers in high-risk groups, drugs and driving, road quality,
vehicle roadworthiness, drivers licenses, legislation, co-ordination, statistics,
information systems, moving violations, and staffing levels. For each priority
areas, a problem statement is given and the proposed remedial measures stated.
For instance, the project on moving violations was said to involve educating
the public on the consequences of violating traffic regulations and the use
of unmarked vehicles and camera technology to prosecute offenders (KwaZulu-Natal
Road Traffic Inspectorate, 1996).

The South African Police Service (SAPS) developed a proposed policy
on treatment /interaction with road victims. It included the following 15 points:

  1. Every effort must be made by a police or traffic official to determine
    the identity of a deceased or seriously injured person.
  2. It is their responsibility to make arrangements to have a message conveyed
    immediately to the next-of-kin/close friend.
  3. A death message must be conveyed in person.
  4. A police or traffic official must ensure that an accident is attended to
    and the on-site investigation carried out in a professional manner.
  5. A police or traffic official must ensure that all accident scenes are professionally
    safeguarded.
  6. Every effort must be made to determine whether there were independent eye
    witnesses to an accident.
  7. It is essential to have training in basic life-support and/or first aid.
  8. Arrangements must be made for the safekeeping of all property of a police
    or traffic official to make arrangements for a tow-truck to tow the damaged
    vehicle of the deceased or seriously injured person.
  9. All accidents which are subject to a police investigation, must be followed
    up with a proper and through police investigation, so that prosecution can
    result.
  10. The establishment and/or implementation of victim-support partnership initiatives
    must be encouraged.
  11. Professional conduct.
  12. Understanding and sensitivity
  13. Making of decisions must be in the best interest of justice and the victims
    at all times (Robot, Spring 1998).

Many police forces in the UK have adopted such codes but this was the only
country identified in Africa which had considered victims needs and how police
should respond.

The following traffic law enforcement references have been published:

The relationship between fines and offences

A research study was conducted to determine what the effect of increased fines
and stricter law enforcement respectively would be on traffic offences. A literature
study was also done to assess other countries' policies regarding heavy vehicle
overloading as well as to determine if previous research could reach any conclusions
about fines, enforcement levels and traffic offences. Regarding the relationship
between fines, law enforcement and offences it was decided to concentrate on
both heavy vehicle overloading offences and offences committed by general road
users, e.g. speeding, seat belt and traffic signal offences. Historical data
were analysed to determine if there was a relationship between law enforcement
and offence rates. Because no definite conclusions could be drawn from existing
data, it was decided to conduct an opinion poll to determine whether road users
knew of the fines structure and to obtain their views on increased fines and
stricter law enforcement. The study indicate that road users were uniformed
about the fines structure and that offences could only be curtailed by better
communication and marketing, together with a combination of higher fines and
stricter law enforcement (Davis, C Apr-95).

The attitude of minibus drivers towards traffic law enforcement

The attitude of taxi drivers towards traffic legislation and traffic law enforcement
was investigated. The main problems identified were bad communication and disrespect
between law enforcers and taxi drivers, the uncontrolled influx of new taxi
drivers into the taxi industry and the competitive nature of this industry.
There is a need for constant training for both traffic law enforcers and taxi
drivers if the problems of the taxi industry are to be addressed. The relationship
between traffic laws and road safety should also be emphasised during training
and ticketing procedures (Botes, G, Mar-93).

Alternative approaches to the enforcement of traffic laws relating to specific
violations by freight and passenger operators and motorists

The feasibility of using electronic or other alternatives to manpower-intensive
methods to monitor, deter or apprehend traffic violators is investigated in
an attempt to release traffic officers for other law enforcement duties. This
is particularly important as, in the light of recent announcements to reduce
the numbers of civil servants, the shortage of traffic officers is likely to
increase. Four traffic violations were selected for investigation on the grounds
of their importance for road safety and the protection of the already threatened
road infrastructure. Those selected were alcohol and drug abuse, excessive speed,
unroadworthy vehicles and overloading of freight and passenger vehicles. The
unique law enforcement problems pertaining to each are described and possible
solutions are discussed (Van Kralingen, WN, Mar-92).

Attitudes of traffic officers to minibus-taxi drivers The relationships between
traffic officers

and minibus-taxi drivers have always been strained. Various factors contribute
to this, including the rift between the race groups in South Africa, the frustrations
that traffic officers experience in the performance of their duties and the
tense contact situation. Although these factors have to be taken into consideration
when assessing the relationships, it is also vital to consider the personality
profiles of the men who choose the traffic profession as their career (Sonderling,
NE, Mar-92).

Following too closely: (a) Recommendations for a criminal following time (b)
the development and introduction of suitable enforcement equipment

This report discusses local and overseas statistics on rear-end collisions,
as well as legal problems with prosecutions for following too closely, The prescription
of a measurable objective following time is proposed and "safe", "unsafe" and
"criminal" following rimes are defined (Botha, TJ, Aug-89).

The administrative adjudication of road traffic offences Discussions around
the establishment

of the Road Traffic management Corporation in term of road traffic offences
is supplied (Van Tonder, H, Jul-99).

9 Driver Testing and Training

Apart from South Africa, the driver testing and training references found from
Africa were from Botswana and Ghana. The 1996 Botswana Accident Report reviewed
the progress made and activities undertaken in driver training and examination,
theory tests, driving instructors' training and examination and vehicle examination
(Department of Road Transport and Safety, 1997)

An assessment of driving instruction in Gaborone included was based on surveys
of drivers, driving schools and a review of recent driving test results. The
survey of drivers and driving schools in Gaborone was conducted to assess the
effectiveness and quality of professional driving instruction as driving schools
are uncontrolled in Botswana (Oladiran and Pheko, 1995). The questionnaire contained
36 questions covering: demographic details, type and condition of vehicles used
for training, frequency and amount of instruction, topics covered during training,
previous L-test attempts, accident record of candidates and cost of taking driving
instruction. Of the 400 randomly selected drivers who participated in the survey,
70 per cent were male.

Driver survey findings revealed the following:

  • Few students receive any night-time
    training
  • Male student drivers received more
    professional training than females

While the vast majority were taught road signs (94%, training in traffic offences
and penalties was low (32%) and only 2% claimed to have received any defensive
driver training. Over half said they had been taught about the causes of driving.
Survey findings were limited to relative percentages and the share of drivers
receiving driver training or driver licensing status was not given. Unlicensed
drivers posed a problem as the Ministry of Works had identified 36 per cent
of all drivers killed in road accidents as being unlicensed.

Pass rates overall at the four main testing stations had improved between 1992
(22-36%) and 1993(25-43%). It was hypothesised that this was due to the increased
number of driving schools which were enforcing the mandatory training period
of 6 months.

Driving schools surveyed included the 33 registered in Gaborone and some of
the non-commercial driving schools as well. The 40 question survey included
details of available facilities and staffing, demographic information about
trainees, and accident and L-test pass records of the institute. The driving
school survey revealed that no training was being conducted on pick-ups despite
their accounting for the majority of the nation's vehicles and being involved
in 40 per cent of all crashes. The study concluded that driving standards would
be improved by standardising the driving schools and monitoring their performance
(Oladiran and Pheko, 1995).

Commercial drivers were the focus of a research study in Ghana. Commercial
vehicles account for 46 per cent of all registered vehicles in Ghana, have higher
occupancies and greater kilometrage travelled (Mock et al, 1999). A community
based survey was undertaken in Ghana which both estimated the involvement of
commercial vehicles in road injuries and assessment of the current knowledge,
attitude and practices of commercial drivers. Of the 122 motor vehicle related
injuries (those which had occurred in the previous year and had resulted in
at least 1 day's work) identified in a survey of 21,105 people, commercial vehicles
were involved in 81 per cent of related injuries with buses accounting for half
(Mock et al, 1999). While commercial vehicles were found to be equally involved
in pedestrian crashes and motor vehicle crashes, commercial vehicles had a higher
involvement rate in children's injuries (95%) than adults (79%).

Focus group discussions were conducted with 30 commercial drivers in a lorry
park in Kumasi. Groups were limited to 5-7 drivers and organised by specific
types of drivers (taxi and mini-bus), i.e. type of vehicle driven and destination.
Drivers were asked general questions on the cause of crashes and how they can
be prevented as well as specific questions on vision, alcohol, fatigue, vehicle
maintenance, and seat belts. Drivers were also asked to identify some traffic
signs. No limit was set on drivers' responses and discussion lasted between
1-2 hours.

Despite showing a positive attitude towards safety and basic knowledge of the
effect of alcohol, driver vision, vehicle maintenance in contributing to crashes,
drivers did not appear to put into practice what they knew. For instance, few
drivers had had their vision checked and most reported only using seat belts
on long journeys. Traffic signs posed a problem with 70 per cent incorrectly
identifying the sign for "sharp bend ahead". For contributory factors in road
crashes, the drivers listed economic pressure with high rental rates pushing
them to drive long hours and while exhausted. Limited availability and the high
cost of spare parts and tires also contributed to crashes whereas many imported
vehicles did not include seat belts. Brake fluid was often watered diluted with
soap and water to save money. Drivers thought that crashes could be reduced
if the cost, quantity and quality of spare parts could be improved, towing services
expanded to allow prompt removal of broken down vehicles, free or low cost vision
testing for drivers and stricter licensing and testing of drivers.

A summary of the Petroleum Road Transport Safety Limited facility where defensive
driver training and vehicle inspections are offered is included in Section 5.3
Private Sector Participation. Public sector capability in driver training and
testing is also being improved under a SIDA funded project. The 3 year project
will develop and introduce a new driving test (both theory and practical aspects),
training of 100-200 persons including driving examiners, driving instructors
and trainers as well as the establishment of formal procedures and criteria
for regulating driving schools and driving instructors (Ross, Nov 1999).

In 1989 the UNECA commissioned TRL to produce a guide for Heavy Goods Vehicle
(HGV) drivers. Evaluation in the development stages (Downing, 1989) indicated
serious groups in professional driver's knowledge of safe driving practices
and demonstrate a 13 percent improvement in drivers' text scores after reading
this guide.

The study also indicated that advanced driver training courses were provided
by a large number of large fleet operators and, in Zimbabwe, the ZTSB run defensive
driving courses were reported (Sandwith, 1980) to result in large drops in company
driver's crash rates.

9.1 South African Driver Testing and Training

CSIR has produced the following publications on driver training and testing:

Contribution of human factors to combi-taxi collisions

The report investigated two human factors which could possibly play a role in
Combi-taxi collisions, namely attitudes and pressure. The investigation revealed
that Combi-taxi drivers are aware of the importance of road safety, but do not
always take it seriously and are not always aware of the rules of the road.
They are subjected to a great degree of pressure. There is a perception that
they are not considerate towards their passengers. It is recommended that ways
be found to alleviate the pressure on them, and that the acquiring of cognitive
skills be incorporated as an essential part of all driver training courses,
which would again facilitate attitude change of drivers (Sonderling, NE, Mar-91).

Graduated licensing system

The of young people applying for drivers' licenses in South Africa are increasing
dramatically and it is estimated that by the year 2000 approximately 2,6 million
inexperience drivers will be applying for licenses. The drastic increase in
novice drivers will have a subsequent increase in collisions and fatalities.
It is proposed that there should be multiple levels to which the novice driver
can be gradually exposed to the traffic situation in the safest possible manner
until he has proved to be a mature and experienced driver (Coetsee, TN, Sep-99).

Contribution of human factors to combi-taxi collisions This report investigated
two human

factors which could possibly play a role in Combi-taxi collisions, namely attitudes
and pressure. The drivers are aware of the importance of road safety but do
not always take it seriously and are not always sure of the rules of the road
(Sonderling, N Mar-91).

The development and application of a training programme to enhance occupational
skills of minibus-taxi drivers

A basic training programme for minibus-taxi drivers, tailored to the particular
needs of the minibus-taxi industry, was developed and piloted. It is designed
to enhance the occupational skills of drivers in the industry, and is aimed
at overcoming the problems of inadequate basic education and minimal exposure
to managing financial matters by minibus-taxi drivers. The programme consists
of eight modules and covers areas not conventionally within the ambit of driver
training programmes (Miller, PK, Mar-91).

The application of a programme of action designed to enhance the basic driver
skills of combi-taxi drivers

A basic driver training programme for Combi-taxi drivers, tailored to the particular
needs of the Combi-taxi industry, developed. It forms part of a four-pronged
approach to improve the quality of drivers in the Combi-taxi industry, and is
aimed at overcoming the problems of inadequate basic education and economic
exposure of Combi-taxi drivers. The programme consists of eight modules and
covers areas not conventionally within the ambit of driver training programmes
(Miller, PK, Mar-91).

The likely evolution of the combi-taxi and bus industries: implications for
public transport planning and funding

The report examines the implications for national and local funding and planning
authorities on the evolution of the combi-taxi and bus industries under two
policy scenarios. The effects on operators, support industries and road safety
are also considered (Smith, RA, Mar-92).

10 Vehicle Safety

Very little was found documented on vehicle inspection or safety regulations.
The responsibilities of the Vehicle Examination Section in Botswana were briefly
summarised in an evaluation report (Davey, 1996). The 1996 Botswana Annual Accident
Report commended the Vehicle Examination Section for having produced a very
useful "Guide to Roadworthiness Testing for Motor Vehicles" which was written
in layman's terms. Zimbabwe is reported to be benefiting from a major technical
assistance input from SIDA to establish regional centres for vehicle testing.

The functions of the Vehicle Examination and Licensing Department (VELD) in
Ghana were recently reviewed and consideration given to privatisation. It was
decided that the VELD would be restructured and the headquarters would be separated
from the Accra Testing Station (Kwakye et al, 1997)

Vehicle registration data is being computerised in Zambia but there is little
information collected on vehicle inspections although the Police reported 20
per cent of injury crashes to have been caused by vehicle defects (tyres, brake
failure, lack of lights). A vehicle defect rectification scheme was conducted
during the Traffic Safety Month (October 1996). A grace period of two weeks
was allowed for vehicle defects to be repaired with defaulters having their
names published in the local newspapers (Aeron-Thomas, 1998).

10.1.1 South African Vehicle Safety

Examples of both primary and secondary vehicle safety research were found in
South Africa.

Evaluation of braking performance of loaded minibus-taxis

The braking performance of loaded minibus-taxis is evaluated in this report.
This is done with specific reference to the replacement and "pirate" replacement
parts which are compared with the braking components of the original equipment
manufacturers (Meintjes, HS, Aug-92).

The motor vehicle tyre in road safety

Tyres are a relevant factor in approximately 11% of motor vehicle accidents.
As such they are an extremely important aspect of road safety. Aspect such as
thread depth, cord damage, inflation pressure, vehicle loading, rubber conditions
and repair techniques all influence the safety of the tyres. These aspects are
briefly discussed in this paper (Duff-Riddell, WR, Sep-97.

Bus safety standards: (guidelines on reduction of the flammability of interior
materials

The problem of flammability of materials used for the interior of passenger
buses is reviewed. Tests done on currently used materials, as well as new materials
are discussed. Methods to reduce the risk to bus occupants are discussed. A
recommendation on where the bus industry and the legislative bodies should aim
to be with regard to the subject of flammability of interior materials is put
forward (Thomas, AW, Jun-88).

11 Road Safety Publicity

In Zimbabwe, publicity campaigns are organised by the National Road Safety
Committee which includes a representative from the Zimbabwe Traffic Safety Board,
Zimbabwe Police and Shell with rotating committee leadership. Road safety campaigns
had previously been conducted on a monthly basis but the Committee realised
that these were too short to have any effect. It has adopted a quarterly campaign
programme and the calendar for 1999 included the Negligent Pedestrian for the
first quarter, followed by Vehicle Defects, then the Use of Seat Belts. The
year was to end with a campaign on Don't Drink and Drive and a recapture of
the previous three.

The Federal Road Safety Commission in Nigeria was reported to conduct public
enlightenment programmes that included:

  • Public enlightenment workshops and
    seminars on drivers improvement course.
  • Motor park rallies involving the
    drivers' association and passengers
  • Use of drama sketches (an acknowledged
    medium of communication in Nigeria)
  • Literacy campaign emphasising highway
    code and road signs literacy
  • Participants observation method
    involving the deployment of regular marshals in mufti to board public transport
    and monitor activities of road users.
  • Massive large scale campaigns during
    festive periods
  • Special campaigns for selected targets
    such as ministries, institutions, banks, media houses, truck drivers and road
    related industries.
  • Focusing attention on passengers
    who tend to be unaware that accidents claim more passengers than drivers lives
    (Yakasai, 1998).

The Ethiopian Road Safety Study has recommended a publicity campaign be conducted
using the methodology of the AIDS prevention project which targeted transport
workers and was conducted by the Integrated Service for AIDS Prevention and
Support Organisation (ISAPSO). Transport workers are viewed as a "hard to reach"
group and are vulnerable to both AIDS and road crashes.

The Road Transport Authority assisted by identifying transport companies willing
to participate. Seven companies participated and seminars were given for the
transport company managers, labour union leaders, and board members. Peer educators
were then recruited and trained on informal education skills.

The project also undertook a baseline Knowledge Attitude Practices and Behaviour
survey. Educational materials were then customised to the findings from the
survey and included songs and dramas on tape cassettes, leaflets on sexually
transmitted diseases, pocket diaries with risk assessment messages, stickers,
T-shirts and posters. The materials were distributed to drivers, assistants
as well as other transport workers such as office staff and tape cassette players
were loaned to bus drivers.

Regular monitoring was conducted and during an 8 month implementation phase,
over 250,000 travellers were estimated to have heard the tapes. In addition,
peer educators were estimated to have worked with over 2000 transport workers.
A formal evaluation is to be conducted at the end of the project but the indications
are that learning through entertainment without affecting the work schedule
holds much potential (UNAIDS ETHIOPIA, March 1999). Such an approach should
be considered for road safety as the target group is similar and both require
a reduction in personal and social risk.

11.1 South Africa's Road Safety Publicity

Drive Alive, South Africa's national road safety campaign, is discussed under
the section on Private sector participation as much of the funding for the campaign
was donated.

Despite a much higher level of motorisation, South Africa shares with Ethiopia
a serious pedestrian safety problem. Over 40 per cent of the road fatalities
in South Africa are pedestrians and over 10,000 are seriously injured every
year while walking on the roads. The South African Road Safety Technical Committee
formed an Adult Pedestrian Working Group which produced a manual and a flipchart
targeting adult pedestrians. These teaching aids were chosen for their flexibility
and low cost.

The campaign targets the five key areas of

  • Visibility
  • Jay walking
  • Alighting and crossing
  • Speed judgement
  • Drinking and driving

The manual and flipchart are to be distributed by the Department of Transport
to all its provincial counterparts for use at the grassroots level. (Robot,
Autumn 1999)

12 Traffic Safety Education for Children

Early road casualty data analysis found children to account for a higher share
of road casualties in developing countries. Donor agencies have supported the
development of traffic safety materials for children as not only did they appear
to be more vulnerable but they were also keen to instill good habits early in
life to avoid the need to break bad habits later.

A DFID funded research programme into reducing child pedestrian casualties
began with a survey of the current situation with regards to traffic safety
education in schools (Sayer and Downing, 1996). A two-part survey was conducted
with the first surveying Ministries of Education around the world while the
second part surveyed schools in Botswana, Pakistan and Zimbabwe. 50 questionnaires
from 43 different countries (13 from LMCs) were analysed to determine how many
were including traffic safety in the curriculum, if it was a separate subject
or included as component in another subject, and if there were government issued
traffic safety guidelines.

The school surveys were targeted at teachers and covered such questions as
the teachers' views on teaching methods, priority topics, resources available,
outside support, time spent on road safety topics, problems encountered and
improvements needed, and cyclist training. Teachers in 132 schools in Botswana
and 383 schools in Zimbabwe were surveyed.

DFID and TRL followed up this survey with a study in Ghana which had five key
objectives:

  • Investigate Ghana's child pedestrian casualty problem
  • Produce and evaluate a Road Safety Education resource for use by primary school teachers.
  • Identify a suitable teacher training method for use in the developing world
  • Produce materials to be used for teacher -training
  • Provide good practice guidelines for policy makers, administrators and advisors in the education field

A report was published which focused on the research involved in evaluating
the resource (Sayer et al, 1997) while the Guidelines were produced separately
as an Overseas Road Note 17 Guidelines for good practice in primary schools
(TRL, 1997).

While the traditional approach has been to introduce traffic safety into the
school timetable and work within the formal education system, in Africa, many
children cannot afford to attend school. Non formal education programmes tend
to focus more on the practical and topics of direct relevance. Radda Barnen
have included traffic safety lessons in their proposed Alternative Basic Education
programme syllabus. A common syllabus for non formal education programmes has
been submitted to the Ministry of Education for approval and several NGOs are
already pilot testing the syllabus. Materials and training are lacking with
regards to traffic safety lessons as these have been the previous responsibility
of the Traffic Police (TRL, 2000).

The Ghana research also led to the production Safe Ways, a road safety education
resource for teachers of primary children, (TRL, 1996) and a companion volume,
Teaching the Teachers, which was a step by step guide to running a road safety
education workshop for primary school teachers (TRL, 1996).

Child to Child

The Child to Child (CtC) approach, started in 1978, is based on the direct
involvement of children in the decision making and channelling of health information.
It is not an alternative programme but an approach which can be used within
broader health programmes. Children are encouraged to select and assist in the
design of the topics and materials. Previous topics have included personal and
community hygiene, the effects of smoking, AIDS and sex education.

CtC have included several traffic safety worksheets in their suggested manual
and at present, CtC is used in over 60 countries. The lessons are locally selected
and while Zimbabwe was keen to promote the traffic safety lessons, in Ethiopia,
the CtC coordinating agency, Forum for Street Children-Ethiopia (FSCE), had
not thought of including traffic safety lessons in its programme. Over the last
seven years, FSCE has worked with the local police in establishing child protection
units and trying to get the police to view street children as children rather
than small criminals.

12.1 South Africa Road Safety Education for Children

South Africa has done much to promote traffic safety education for children
but the references provided so far only mention one report. The Scholar Programme
and STEP programme are two initiatives that still deserve to be documented.

Moving through road safety education

The lack of effective road safety education in South African schools
and the implementation of a formal road safety education course for student
teachers are discussed (Drotske, L, Sep-99).

13 Medical Services

The role of the medical community in reducing road trauma should not be seen
to be limited to the immediate post crash stage and that of the emergency medical
services. Medical leaders have led the campaign for road safety in many countries,
including both the United States and Australia.

In South Africa, the Medical Research Council (MRC) has been active in highlighting
the human burden of road crashes. It publishes policy briefs as a means of disseminating
research results and influencing decision makers. In 1998, a policy brief on
road trauma was released, entitled "South Africa road traffic trauma: The Way
Forward". The brief discussed the following:

  • The damage done: national cost,
    average daily road fatality and casualty toll, relative share of trauma mortalities,
    low-cost recovery from patients, and impact of disability on individuals as
    well as nation.
  • International comparisons: deaths
    per 100 million kilometres travelled Impact of past and present policies:
    contributory factors of increased freight traffic, overloading and poor road
    maintenance, poor public transport system, increased legislation without any
    accompanied rise in enforcement resources, and lack of consideration to pedestrians
    (40% road deaths).
  • Importance of Speed: vulnerability
    of pedestrians in collisions with higher impact speeds, night time collisions,
    poor enforcement of speed restrictions, including heavy vehicles, inappropriate
    speed limit for gravel rural roads. When speed restrictions were enforced
    during the 1973-79 oil crisis, road fatalities decreased (but not fuel consumption,
    i.e. kilometres travelled) and then increased once speed limits were relaxed.
  • Role of abuse of alcohol and other
    substances: Almost three quarters of all adult pedestrian fatalities (72%)
    had blood alcohol levels .08 g/100ml or more, compared with 16 per cent of
    the adult population after office hours. The involvement rate is even greater
    for drivers under the influence of alcohol (48% driver fatalities but only
    7 % all drivers). Cannabis is also being found in road casualties (20% injured
    pedestrians and 29% injured drivers) but drug detection capability in South
    Africa is very limited.
  • Seatbelts and Child Restraints:
    Despite being mandatory for over 20 years, front seat belt usage was only
    60 per cent. Rear seat belts became mandatory in 1996 and use of child restraints
    is still optional.
  • Protective headgear: Good compliance
    with crash helmets for motorcycle riders and passengers (mandatory since 1974)
    but cycle helmets are optional and usage is uneven.

Recommendations included
increased investment in enforcement with specific mention given:

  1. Speed law enforcement
  2. Focus on mobile traffic offences
  3. More resources allocated at night when fatality risk triples.
  4. Roadside detection of substance abuse

In addition, other recommendations
included more priority given adult pedestrian problem and role of alcohol, improved
public transport, conspicuity campaigns. The need for a central, national authority
on road safety was also suggested and the development of a national safety culture
through publicity and education campaigns. The Arrive Alive campaign was commended
and recommended extended (MRC, 1998).

Medical references related
to the road safety situation fell into two main categories: Data collection
and epidemiological or trauma studies and emergency medical services.

13.1 Trauma surveys

The problems associated
with the current state of health statistics in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed
in a Lancet article in 1998. The mortality rates and cause estimates for Africa
in the Global Burden of Disease were criticised for being based on the 1 per
cent of the sub -Saharan population included in the health statistics of South
Africa and

"Since there are no data, the numbers
are guestimates; representations of reality formed from models, extrapolations,
and common sense, constrained largely by the need to avoid conflict with
previous estimates "(Cooper et al, 1998).

The GBD projections from sub-Saharan
Africa were recommended not to be used until they could be cross-checked with
data.

The 1996 Road Safety Seminar in Kampala
inspired the establishment of the Injury Control Centre-Uganda by one of the
trauma surgeons attending the seminar. Funding has been received from the Canadian
Network for International Surgeons and the first objective was the collection
of trauma casualty data. The programme has now expanded to five hospitals in
Kampala and covers all trauma casualties, i.e. not just road casualties. The
research is intended to identify those social groups most at risk and monitors
such factors as age, occupation, activity and attitude. The ICCU also shares
the information collected through seminars for medical and road safety professionals
(Cripps, 1999)

The ICCU was also reported as resulting
in the introduction of the Injury Prevention Initiative for Africa (IPIFA) in
which trauma surveys are conducted in several other countries including Ethiopia,
Egypt, Kenya, and South Africa. Regional collaboration has also been promoted
through seminars (Cripps, 1999).

WHO introduced a Road Injury Prevention
Initiative in Africa which focused on establishing trauma registries in hospitals
and developing reliable trauma databases.

Community surveys have also been undertaken
in an attempt to accurately measure the incidence of injury.

Eldorado Park, a township in Greater
Johannesburg of approximately 85,000 residents, has applied to become a member
of the Safe Community Network under the WHO Collaborating Centre on Community
Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institutet (Karolinska Institutet, 1998). The Health
Psychology Unit Centre for Peace Action (CPA), a Collaborating Centre for Injury
and Violence Prevention, has been working with the community in Eldorado since
the late 1980s. The findings of early hospital based epidemiological study of
injuries were disseminated through meetings with a variety of organisations
ranging from local community groups to international donor agencies. A violence
prevention programme was subsequently with the clear establishment of objectives,
targets and monitoring procedures an early priority. Difficulty in evaluating
effectiveness led to household surveys of injury patterns and risk factors which
in turn resulted in the "three neighbourhood safety promotion programme". Survey
findings from a sample of over 1000 homes identified traffic injury as second
to violence, but with wide ranging injury rates between the neighborhoods due
to such factors as the the varying local road environment. Appropriate interventions
such as the provision of safe pedestrian crossings and various environmental
modifications to high risk roads were recommended.

An earlier study of childhood injury
patterns at Alexandra, a different South African urban township also within
Greater Johannesburg also found traffic injuries to be the second main cause
of injury (14%) , compared to violence (35%) (Zwi et al, 1995). The traffic
injury rate for girls varied with young girls (under the age of 5) reporting
over twice the traffic injuries as boys of the same age. The pattern then reversed
for children between the ages of 5 and 9 with boys reporting 84 per cent more
injuries than girls. For those aged 19-14, boys had a slighlty higher traffic
injury rate (17 % more).

A recent epidemiological study in Ghana,
funded by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, investigated the
incidence, characteristics and consequences, including costs, of injuries in
both a rural and urban area (Kumasi). A total of 21,105 people were surveyed
about injuries which had occurred in the past year which had resulted in at
least one day of lost normal activity and any other injury which had resulted
in lasting disability. A total of 198 traffic injuries were identified from
the sample, slightly less than 1 per cent injury rate. The economic impact was
also estimated with out of pocket treatment costs and loss days of normal activity.
Traffic injuries were found to account for only 16 per cent of urban injuries
but 75 per cent of all urban injury related deaths.

The annual traffic mortality incidence
in Ghana was reported to be higher than that in the USA. The study concluded
that with respect to the incidence rates, disability times, treatment costs
and economic consequences, injury control, especially that of traffic injury,
merited greater attention from organisations involved in international health
(Mock et al, 1999).

13.2 Emergency Services

The role of the medical sector is often
limited to the immediate post-crash stage involving the emergency medical services.
There is a wide range of emergency medical services in Africa depending on the
location of the crash and the insurance coverage of the casualties. Air ambulances
exist in several African countries but for the most part, ambulances are limited
to urban areas and in some countries such as Ethiopia where the Red Cross provide
ambulance services, few road casualties are transported by ambulance. As of
1995, Kampala was reported as not having any ambulance services for the general
public and a project proposal for 5 ambulances and a supervision car was developed
by St John's ambulance (St John Ambulance, 1996) A 3 month survey at the University
Teaching Hospital in Lusaka reported 35 per cent of road casualties transported
by Good Samaritan, 26 per cent by their own vehicle, 21 per cent by police vehicle
and only 5 per cent by government ambulance (Kafula, 1997).

A presentation at a road safety seminar
in Uganda covered the medical issues of road casualties. Mulago Hospital in
Kampala, reported road crash victims accounting for 20-25 per cent of its surgical
emergency admissions in 1995, when a total of 2087 road casualties were treated
in the hospital's Accident and Emergency Department. The casualty's condition
is worsened by the lack of pre-hospital care in Uganda, with most casualties
being transported to the hospital via "Good Samaritans". Alcohol intoxication
was believed to play a major role in road injury with the then legal blood alcohol
limit of 150 mg/dl (Aidria-Ezati, 1996)

Regional collaboration has begun on
injury control and prevention. The Third International Conference on Injury
Prevention and Control in Melbourne (1996) included a round table session on
injury control in Africa. The objectives were the development of strategies
for increased government and international donor community support for injury
control. Recommended strategies included

Linking injuries with other societal
problems, such as economic losses

Developing interest groups and coalitions,
involving, for instance, the families of injury victims (Forjuoh and Mock, 1998)

14 Alcohol/Drugs and the Road User

While many countries report a problem
with impaired road use due to alcohol and/or drugs, the response has been varied
and in general, poorly documented. Few references were found pertaining to an
area which has been a major priority area for HICs in the past few decades.

While drink driving (and walking under
the influence of alcohol) is accepted as a major problem in many countries,
relatively little research appears to have been conducted, possibly due to the
difficulty and cost of testing. Blood tests are the most common method used
but these involve an invasive procedure and complicated testing procedures as
well. While breathalysers have been the standard method in developed countries
for the past few decades, they are still regarded with suspicion in many countries.

In Eldoret, Kenya, research was conducted
to document the reliability of breathalysers in local conditions (Odero et al,
1999). In early 1995, a six month survey in local hospitals was conducted in
which the breathalyser results of trauma-affected adults were compared with
the findings from blood tests. The sample was restricted to injured adults attending
the emergency room within 10 hours of the injury. Of a total of 2073 trauma
casualties were attended, of which 41 per cent came after more than 10 hours
time from the injury. Another 20 per cent were unable or refused to be tested.
A total of 778 were breathalysed but of these, only 179 also had a blood sample
taken.

Breathalysers were found to provide
reliable and valid estimates of actual blood alcohol concentrations at levels
equal to or greater than 50 millilitres of blood. At this level, nearly all
false positives were eliminated. The need for proper training and clear instructions
in the use of Alcolmeters was also stressed by the study. Breathalysers hold
much potential as a low cost measure for assessing blood alcohol concentration,
even at road side locations.

The Drug Recognition methodology developed
by the Los Angeles Police Department and now used throughout the USA, has been
introduced to South Africa. This involved a collaboration between the Departments
of Justice, Health and Transport, as well as CSIR, the Medical Research Council
and the Human Sciences Research Council. The South African Road Accident Fund
has provided funding for anti-drug road safety strategies (van der Spuy,1997).

Botswana reported a 59 per cent decline
in road deaths caused by drunken driving with 12 fatalities in 1997 compared
to 27 the year before. Publicity and enforcement campaigns, especially the use
of the breathalysers, were credited with contributing to the improvement (Department
of Road Transport and Safety, 1997).

14.1 South Africa and Impaired Road
Use

Alcohol and the injured driver: the
PODDER-project conducted at the Groote Schuur Hospital trauma unit

The objectives of the study were to determine, inter alia, the profile of the
injured driver in terms of his demographic and socio-economic status, the interaction
with law enforcement agencies, collision-related factors such as weather conditions,
driving experiences, time of day and day of week (Kralingen, WN, Feb-91).

15 Crash Costing

This section reviews the extent to which
the cumulative costs of road traffic crashes are currently appreciated in Africa.

15.1 National estimates

At the last African Road Safety Conference,
RTCs were estimated at costing 2 per cent of a country's GNP (Dhilweyo, 1997).
In the late 1980s, the Southern African Transport and Communications Council
(SATCC) estimated RTCs to cost between 1.8-2.6 per cent GNP in the region. The
2 per cent estimate is being used by Nigeria (Osagie et al, 1998) while in Zambia,
a 1990 TOI study estimated RTCs at 2.3 per cent GNP. The Botswana Road Safety
Improvement Programme adopted South African values and estimated the 1994 national
cost at P275M, 2.7 per cent GDP (Davey, 1996) yet the 1997 cost estimate for
RTCs in South Africa was almost 13 billion Rand, 1 per cent GNP (Robot, Winter
1999). A recent study in Ethiopia estimated the RTC costs to be 0.8-0.9 per
cent of GNP

High costing estimates have also been
found with the Road Safety Unit in the Ministry of Public Works in Kenya valuing
the cost of road accidents at 5 per cent country's GNP (Odero, 1997). KwaZulu-Natal
estimates the consequences of road collisions to cost 4.5 per cent of the Province's
Gross Domestic Product (KwaZulu-Natal Road Traffic Inspectorate, 1995).

All countries used the gross output
method but several included a component for the human costs, i.e. pain, grief
and suffering (PGS). In Tanzania (1994) the resource costs of accidents were
calculated from data from medical, insurance sector, police and planning commission.
No addition was made for PGS and these costs were described as "preliminary"
with vehicle damage estimated at 5 per cent of the value of the colliding vehicle.
The resource costs were offered as a conservative estimate (11 billion TAS)
with the actual costs assumed to be closer to 15-20 billion TAS (Tanzania MOW,
1996).

Until 1991, South Africa did not include
a human cost component and it is still only a small amount based on actual compensation
by the Road Accident Fund and only allocated to injuries (Schutte, 1999).

The Ethiopian costing was a desk exercise,
which used different approaches to estimate the current RTC cost (Ethiopia Road
Safety Study Survey Report, 1999). It was the only reference found which addressed
the problem of under-reporting. The total cost to the country was calculated
to include the cost of RTCs not reported to the police.

15.1.1 Average accident costs

The level of details provided on the
costings varied considerably and only a few provided average accident costs.
The Road Safety Improvement Programme in Malawi estimated accident costs in
1992 for the four different severities, i.e. fatal, serious, slight, damage
only. (De Leuw Cather, 1992). These categories were used by the costings in
Ethiopia and South Africa, and a comparison of the relative weightings is shown
in the table below.

15.1.2 Medical costs

Medical costs account for only a small portion of total crash costs yet RTCs
are a serious drain on the limited medical resources available in Africa. The
burden on the Kenya health care services from RTC included 2 per cent of all
hospital attendances, 5 per cent admissions, 39 per cent trauma related admissions
and 44 per cent of all trauma related bed days due to road casualties. RTC injuries
resulted in a average length of inpatient stay over twice that of violence,
the other main cause of trauma (Odero, 1998). In South Africa, one study found
that only 5.5% of related costs were recovered from patients (MRC Policy Brief,
1998).

RTC is a major cause of disability with three quarters of all patients admitted
to the National Spinal Injury Hospital in Nairobi due to RTCs (Odero/Holst,
1998).

15.1.3 Socio-economic costs

A research project funded by DFID a few years back investigated the socio-economic
impact of RTCs in Fiji, Ghana, Indonesia, Peru, Swaziland and Zimbabwe through
hospital and insurance claim surveys. Most victims were married and living with
between 9-46 per cent being the sole earner for the family. In Bangladesh, only
one of every six victims surveyed did not have any dependants RTC victims were
reported to have a higher median income than the national average but this may
reflect the hospital based nature of the surveys (Ghee et al, 1997).

In keeping with its poverty elimination objective, DFID has continued to fund
research into the impacts of RTCs as they are assumed to affect the vulnerable
of society. A scoping study was recently undertaken which reviewed the current
weaknesses of crash costing in developing countries and proposed a new methodology
to be piloted in several countries (Ross Silcock, 2000). The case studies have
been agreed to include Bangladesh, South Africa, India (Bangalore) and Ghana
and are due to start in late 2000. A wider approach has been proposed which,
in contrast to the traditional methodology which focuses on the casualty, investigates
the impact on the family as they must bear the burden of care and adjust to
the reduced household income available. Multiple methods of collecting lost
output and vehicle damage costs have also been proposed for comparison purposes.

15.1.4 Application

The economic analysis of a road safety project was discussed in the Malawi
Road Safety Improvement Manual (Draft 1992), which contained practical examples
of how to how to undertake a benefit cost analysis for safety measures.

The Tanzania Road Safety Programme Report (1996) included a chapter on the
costs and other consequences of RTC. The objective was to derive a rational
estimate of an annual road safety budget. A programme costing up to 1 billion
shillings annually (about 5 per cent of the annual loss) was proposed. Assuming
the recent accident reduction could be attributed to the programme, the savings
from an a 1 per cent reduction in accident growth meant the cost of the DNTC
Road Safety Division and the Police Capital would have been recouped in less
than 2 years (Davey, 1996).

The ongoing Ethiopian Road Safety Study has used accident costs to highlight
the small amount of funding being proposed for road safety improvements. Accident
costs are being estimated at approximately twice the Road Fund annual earnings
yet only 1-2 per cent of the Road Fund was being discussed for road safety investment
(TRL, 1999)

15.2 South African Costing

South Africa has been researching crash costs for over the past three decades,
with the first national estimate of RTC costs published in 1965. There have
been 13 subsequent reviews of RTC costs, which are updated on an annual basis.
CSIR have recently reviewed the methodology and are in the process of revising
accident costs. RTC costs have been used to estimate the benefits of the ongoing
Drive Alive national road safety campaign.

The references listed below are recent CSIR publications.

Validation of routine for determining travel time and road accident cost

According to the CEAS manual, the value of time or human life is a function
of income per capita or income per worker. In this report the values for income
given in the CEAS manual are compared with values obtained from roadside surveys.
Also, the need to consider through traffic is considered. Finally, the implications
of classifying vehicle occupants into three groups are indicated. It is concluded,
inter alia, that current thinking on the valuation of time and human lives may
not be acceptable future decision makers (Schutte, IC, Mar-94).

The results of a pilot study to estimate the social value of road accident
reduction for the purposes of CBA

The usual method for estimating the benefits of reducing the incidence of road
accidents for the purpose of cost benefit analysis is to calculate the saving
in accident costs. In this report, it is explained that the social value of
accident reduction is really determined by the willingness of society to pay
for safer roads. The results of a pilot survey which establishes this willingness
are described, although it is evident that motorists consider existing taxation
sufficient to afford such roads. A more comprehensive survey is recommended
(Greenwood, PD, Oct-89).

The value of life according to the willingness-to-pay approach

The report contains the results of a survey to determine the willingness of
individuals to contribute to improved road safety (Morden, CH, Mar-91).

Methodology for the determination of the unit cost of road traffic collisions
in South Africa as an input into economic evaluation

This report reviews the methodology for the estimation of the costs of collisions,
including the methodologies used for earlier South African studies between 1962
and 1992, and the state-of-the-art of collision cost estimation internationally
(Schutte, IC, Mar-99).

An estimate of the unit cost of road traffic collisions in South Africa for
1998

This study was done in two phases. In Phase 1 the methodology for the estimation
of the costs of collisions was reviewed, and proposals were made for updating
South African estimates. Phase 2 involved the actual estimation of collision
costs. Relevant aspects relating to phase 2 are documented in this report (Schutte,
IC, Mar-00).

Updated: Saturday, May 20, 2017